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On the Social Construction of Moral Universals: The “Holocaust” from War Crime to Trauma Drama

Jeffrey C. Alexander

in The Meanings of Social Life: A Cultural Sociology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195160840
eISBN:
9780199944156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195160840.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Culture

This chapter explores the social creation of a cultural fact and evaluates the effects of this cultural fact on social and moral life. It analyses the creation of moral universals, focusing on the ... More


Health and Suffering

Abdulaziz Sachedina

in Islamic Biomedical Ethics Principles and Application

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195378504
eISBN:
9780199869688
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378504.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Islam

Muslims, like other peoples of faith, have struggled to reconcile God‘s omnipotence with the persistent evils of the world, including the pain and suffering that attend illness. This chapter treats ... More


WHY GOD ALLOWS EVIL

Richard Swinburne

in Is There a God?

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780198235446
eISBN:
9780191705618
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198235446.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

God may be expected to give humans significant responsibility for themselves and each other (including responsibility for forming their own characters). This involves allowing them to do significant ... More


: On the Very Idea of a Propensity to Evil

Henry E. Allison

in Essays on Kant

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199647033
eISBN:
9780191741166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199647033.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay analyzes Kant's attempt to ground radical evil, understood as the root of all moral evil, in the concept of finite rational agency. Kant is seen as holding that such evil consists in a ... More


Evolution and Evil: The Difference Darwinism Makes in Theology and Spirituality

Jeff Astley

in Reading Genesis after Darwin

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195383355
eISBN:
9780199870561
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383355.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, History of Christianity

Despite the complacent reaction of many theologians, Darwinism remains a dangerous idea for any religion that embraces a doctrine of creation. In particular, the evolutionary perspective—especially ... More


Evil

Dominic J. O'Meara

in Plotinus: An Introduction to the Enneads

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198751472
eISBN:
9780191598128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198751478.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Plotinus identifies matter as absolute evil and as the principle of (secondary) evil – i.e. natural evil and moral evil (vice). This much‐disputed theory of evil is presented in its main lines, as ... More


The Problem of Evil

Robert Audi

in Rationality and Religious Commitment

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199609574
eISBN:
9780191731822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609574.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How is evil—and so much of it—possible if God, as conceived in classical theism, is sovereign in the universe? This chapter explains how moral evil (wrongdoing) can occur under God—given human ... More


Leibniz and Theodicy: Evil as the Good

Gavin Rae

in Evil in the Western Philosophical Tradition

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781474445320
eISBN:
9781474465205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474445320.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter takes up Leibniz’s theodicy to show that while he agrees with Descartes that God’s creation is linked to His will, Leibniz claims that God’s will is an effect of His knowledge. This is ... More


Doing Evil Justly? The Morality of Justifiable Abomination

Mark Evans

in Evil in Contemporary Political Theory

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748641963
eISBN:
9780748652860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748641963.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Evil has always been a central issue in just-war theory. This chapter argues, however, that just-war theory has been so preoccupied with justice in the declaration and conduct of war that it has ... More


The Alienation of the Creator

Paul S. Fiddes

in The Creative Suffering of God

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198263470
eISBN:
9780191682568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198263470.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter examines the argument from the nature of creaturely existence, one of the two main routes which theologians have taken to arrive at the idea of a hostile non-being which people and God ... More


The Free Will Defense

Hugh J. McCann

in Molinism: The Contemporary Debate

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590629
eISBN:
9780191731280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590629.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter is a critique of views that seek to resolve the problem of moral evil by holding that such evil is owing to exercises of human freedom that escape God's control as creator. It is argued ... More


The Evidential Weight of Social Evil

Joseph Corabi

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 8

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198806967
eISBN:
9780191844461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806967.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Social evil—pain and suffering caused by game-theoretic interactions among agents—has recently received attention as a newly recognized and potentially problematic kind of evidence against theism. ... More


St. Thomas and the First Cause of Moral Evil

Lawrence Dewan

in Wisdom, Law, and Virtue: Essays in Thomistic Ethics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823227969
eISBN:
9780823237210
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823227969.003.0012
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

In seeking the first cause of moral evil, St. Thomas Aquinas was not content to speak only of the deficiency in the will's choice, nor again to speak only of the freedom of ... More


Islam and the Problem of Black Suffering

Sherman A Jackson

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195382068
eISBN:
9780199852437
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382068.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Islam

In his controversial 1973 book, Is God a White Racist?, William R. Jones sharply criticized black theologians for their agnostic approach to black suffering, noting that the doctrine of an ... More


There is no Free-Will Defense

James P. Sterba

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 8

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198806967
eISBN:
9780191844461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806967.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This paper argues that there is no Free-Will Defense for the degree and amount of moral evil in our world. It denies that God’s creating our world with the degree and amount of moral evil that ... More


The Problem of Evil, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility

David Baggett and Jerry L. Walls

in God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199931194
eISBN:
9780190464165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931194.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter, contends that the problem of evil is more distinctly a problem on theistic assumptions, for there really is a gap between the way the world is and the way it ought to be. The problem is ... More


Social Evil ∗

Ted Poston

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 5

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780198704768
eISBN:
9780191774300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704768.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Social evil is any pain or suffering brought about by game-theoretic interactions of many individuals. This chapter introduces and discusses social evil. It begins with social evil brought about by ... More


Evil, Unintelligibility, Radicality: Footnotes to a Correspondence Between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers

Andrew Chignell

in Evil: A History

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199915453
eISBN:
9780190248383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199915453.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter articulates two concerns that Karl Jaspers raised (with Hannah Arendt) about the common practice of viewing moral evil as unintelligible. The first is that this involves exoticizing the ... More


The Problem of Evil

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239635
eISBN:
9780191598609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239637.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

It is a good thing that humans should have the opportunity to choose freely between good and evil; and hence the “free will” defence to “moral evil”, that God has reason to allow such evil. There are ... More


Evil, Natural Science, and Animal Suffering

Eric Martin and Eric Watkins

in Evil: A History

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199915453
eISBN:
9780190248383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199915453.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter investigates how historical developments within the natural sciences—specifically, the emergence of mathematical physics in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and of evolutionary ... More


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