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Universalism

Simon Caney

in Justice Beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780198293507
eISBN:
9780191602337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829350X.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Any global political theory must start by asking whether there are in fact universal moral values, and this chapter addresses precisely this question. Section I engages in a conceptual analysis of ... More


The Ethics of Belief

Jeff Jordan

in Pascal's Wager: Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199291328
eISBN:
9780191710698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199291328.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Is belief in God when faced with a lack of evidence improper? Evidentialism answers yes. According to Evidentialism, it is impermissible to believe any proposition lacking adequate evidence. ... More


Freedom and Reason

R. M. Hare

Published in print:
1965
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198810926
eISBN:
9780191597589
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019881092X.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Concerns the apparent antinomy between freedom and reason. Rationality appears to be a restraint on freedom, whereas freedom seems to be incompatible with rationality. Rejecting rationality to ... More


Arguments from Consciousness and Morality

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199271672
eISBN:
9780191709357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271672.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Humans are conscious beings; they have mental events — sensations, thoughts, and intentions, which consist in properties possessed by souls. Science might one day produce a list of correlations ... More


Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality

David Baggett and Jerry L. Walls

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199751808
eISBN:
9780199894840
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751808.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This book defends an interconnected set of moral arguments for God's existence by arguing that classical theism better explains moral duty, freedom, and responsibility than naturalism does. After ... More


Morality and Religion

Linda Zagzebski

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195138092
eISBN:
9780199835348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138090.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Almost all religions contain a code of morality, and in spite of the factthat there are moral codes and philosophies that do not rely upon anyreligion, it has been traditionally argued that there are ... More


A Moral Argument

R. M. Hare

in Freedom and Reason

Published in print:
1965
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198810926
eISBN:
9780191597589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019881092X.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Examines the nature of moral argument and how arguments might be brought to a conclusion. It is argued that moral reasoning is a kind of exploration akin to Karl Popper's concept of deduction; the ... More


Other Inductive Arguments

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Six C-inductive arguments for and against the existence of God are critically discussed in this chapter: the Argument from Consciousness, the Argument from Moral Truth, the Argument from Moral ... More


The Justificatory Liberalism of Gerald Gaus

Nicholas Wolterstorff and Terence Cuneo

in Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199558957
eISBN:
9780191744808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558957.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Gerald Gaus has developed a distinct version of public reason liberalism and has done so with a great deal of philosophical sophistication. There are two respects in which Gaus’ version of public ... More


God's Natural Laws

Charles Taliaferro

in Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality: Contemporary Essays

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199243006
eISBN:
9780191697203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199243006.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter discusses a framework for theistic moral arguments with respect to objective moral truths. The chapter also puts forward a proposal for how a successful argument can be constructed where ... More


Logic and Morals

R. M. Hare

in Freedom and Reason

Published in print:
1965
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198810926
eISBN:
9780191597589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019881092X.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Revisits the question of the relation between ethics, considered as a study of the logical character of moral concepts, and substantive moral questions. It covers much of the ground of previous ... More


Religious Experience and the Question of Whether Belief in God Requires Evidence

Evans C. Stephen

in Evidence and Religious Belief

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199603718
eISBN:
9780191729287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603718.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter argues that George Mavrodes’ account of religious experience helps us to see the value of both Reformed epistemology’s contention that belief in God can be ‘properly basic’ and ... More


The Method of Balancing

Matthias Klatt and Moritz Meister

in The Constitutional Structure of Proportionality

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199662463
eISBN:
9780191743405
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662463.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Philosophy of Law

The third chapter analyses in detail and last step of proportionality analysis, namely balancing. The authors defend a wide-scope theory, allowing for definitional generosity in rights reasoning. The ... More


Rational Engagement, Emotional Response, and the Prospects for Moral Progress in Animal Use “Debates”

Nathan Nobis

in The Ethics of Animal Research: Exploring the Controversy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262017060
eISBN:
9780262301602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017060.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter reveals that moral progress does not need any “new” philosophy or ethical theorizing. It determines three basic logical skills for rationally evaluating moral arguments. It reviews a ... More


Meta-ethics

Tim Mulgan

in Purpose in the Universe: The moral and metaphysical case for Ananthropocentric Purposivism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199646142
eISBN:
9780191813993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646142.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter plays four roles. First, it defends non-naturalist moral realism against non-cognitivism, moral naturalism, and moral nihilism. Second, it challenges the implicit presumption of global ... More


What Are the Prospects for Public Reason Liberalism?

Nicholas Wolterstorff and Terence Cuneo

in Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199558957
eISBN:
9780191744808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558957.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The project of this essay is to stand back from all particular versions of public reason theories, describe their general structure, and assess their prospects. The prospects of this theory, this ... More


God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning

David Baggett and Jerry L. Walls

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199931194
eISBN:
9780190464165
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931194.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This book features a fourfold moral argument for God’s existence. The four dimensions of the argument are moral facts, moral knowledge, moral transformation, and moral rationality. The relevant moral ... More


Liberal Democracy as Equal Political Voice

Nicholas Wolterstorff and Terence Cuneo

in Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199558957
eISBN:
9780191744808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558957.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This essay moves beyond critique of public reason liberalism to propose an alternative interpretation of the governing idea of liberal democracy. At the heart of that idea is a commitment to not ... More


Legal Positivism and the Sources of Law *

Joseph Raz

in The authority of law: Essays on law and morality

Published in print:
1979
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198253457
eISBN:
9780191681400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198253457.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter explains the reasons for rejecting any approach to the law which assumes that the determination of the legal validity of any standard of conduct involves a moral argument. In it, the ... More


Begging the Question for Moral Responsibility

Bruce N. Waller

in Against Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016599
eISBN:
9780262298940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016599.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter focuses on systemic moral responsibility arguments that start from the assumption that we are naturally morally responsible and argue that because in our natural non-miraculous world ... More


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