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Species Selection, Clade Selection, and Macroevolution

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines selection at the level of species and clades. The history of the species selection debate, including its conceptual link to the idea that species are individuals, is outlined. ... More


Summary

Yu-Feng Hsu and Jerry A. Powell

in Phylogenetic Relationships within Heliodinidae and Systematics of Moths Formerly Assigned to Heliodines Stainton (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098473
eISBN:
9780520916067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098473.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Heliodinidae are a group of lower ditrysian moths defined by five synapomorphies: smooth head scaling; forewing M veins two-branched; ventral branches of apophyses posteriores fused into a medial ... More


Introduction

John E. Lattke

in A Taxonomic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Ant Genus Gnamptogenys Roger in Southeast Asia and Australasia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098442
eISBN:
9780520916043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098442.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Gnamptogenys Roger is a group of predatory ponerine ants found in tropical and subtropical, mesic forested areas in Southeast Asia and Australasia, and from the southern United States to northern ... More


Phylogenetics

John E. Lattke

in A Taxonomic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Ant Genus Gnamptogenys Roger in Southeast Asia and Australasia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098442
eISBN:
9780520916043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098442.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Analysis of the phylogenetics of Gnamptogenys Roger produced two most parsimonious trees. Successive weighting selected one of the two trees of the same length and topology. The alternate topology ... More


Building Blocks of Biogeography: Biotic Areas and Area Homology

Lynne R. Parenti and Malte C. Ebach

in Comparative Biogeography: Discovering and Classifying Biogeographical Patterns of a Dynamic Earth

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520259454
eISBN:
9780520944398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520259454.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the role of biotic areas in biogeography. A biotic area consists of homologous area relationships expressed by more than one monophyletic group that inhabits a common place ... More


Distribution within the Hawaiian Islands

Michael Heads

in Molecular Panbiogeography of the Tropics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271968
eISBN:
9780520951808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271968.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Distribution patterns in the Hawaiian Islands have often been interpreted with respect to island age and the “progression rule,” with groups on younger islands predicted to be nested in groups on ... More


Phylogeny of Heliodinidae

Yu-Feng Hsu and Jerry A. Powell

in Phylogenetic Relationships within Heliodinidae and Systematics of Moths Formerly Assigned to Heliodines Stainton (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098473
eISBN:
9780520916067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098473.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Systematists have relied largely on forewing venation, color and scaling on forewing and legs, and perching behavior to characterize heliodinids. These features, however, are not unique to the family ... More


Molecular Phylogenetics and Phylogeography

James L. Patton, David G. Huckaby, and Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda

in The Evolutionary History and a Systematic Revision of Woodrats of the Neotoma lepida Group

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098664
eISBN:
9780520942592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098664.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

The hypothesis of the monopoly members of the Neotoma lepida group with respect to other species in the genus Neotoma is examined in this chapter. Once monophyly is established, the degree of ... More


History and Development of Comparative Biogeography

Lynne R. Parenti and Malte C. Ebach

in Comparative Biogeography: Discovering and Classifying Biogeographical Patterns of a Dynamic Earth

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520259454
eISBN:
9780520944398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520259454.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Systematic biogeography, the discovery of classification of regions based on biotic area homologies, is a newly emerging method of biogeography that bridges phylogenetic and distribution patterns. ... More


Biodiversity

Theodore W. Pietsch

in Oceanic Anglerfishes: Extraordinary Diversity in the Deep Sea

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255425
eISBN:
9780520942554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255425.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The Ceratioidei, containing all the deep-sea anglerfishes, is by far the most species-rich vertebrate taxon within the bathypelagic realm—a vast, largely empty body of cold, nutrient-poor water that ... More


Wallacea Deconstructed

Lynne R. Parenti and Malte C. Ebach

in Beyond Cladistics: The Branching of a Paradigm

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520267725
eISBN:
9780520947993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520267725.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Wallacea is a triangular-shaped area in the middle of the Indo-Australian Archipelago that was delimited by Roy Ernest Dickerson and colleagues (1928) in a collaborative volume on the distribution of ... More


Endemism and Evolution of the Macaronesian Flora

Mark A. Carine, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra, I. Rosana Guma, and J. Alfredo Reyes-Betancort

in Beyond Cladistics: The Branching of a Paradigm

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520267725
eISBN:
9780520947993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520267725.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The Macaronesian region comprises the volcanic oceanic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Salvages, Canary Islands, and Cape Verdes located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The flora of the region ... More


Monophyly and the Two Hierarchies

Olivier Rieppel

in Beyond Cladistics: The Branching of a Paradigm

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520267725
eISBN:
9780520947993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520267725.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The school of biological systematics known as cladistics is notorious for drawing a distinction between pattern and process. The pattern is one of relative degrees of relationships, the process is ... More


Phylum Cnidaria

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The Cnidaria is a well-defined phylum consisting of approximately 10,000 living species that are aquatic and primarily marine in nature. The monophyly of the cnidarians is supported in all newer ... More


Phylum Sipuncul

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0026
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The phylum Sipuncula is comprised of approximately 150 benthic, marine species. Fossils from the Lower Cambrian suggest a number of strikingly ‘modern’ sipunculans. The sipunculans have two body ... More


Phylum Tardigrada

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0046
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The Tardigrada, or water bears, is a small phylum comprised of about 1,000 described species of microscopic animals found in almost all types of permanently or periodically moist habitats, including ... More


Phylum Nematomorpha

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0050
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The phylum Nematomorpha, or hair worms, consists of approximately 325 known species of nematode-like parasites that spend the larval stage in the body cavities of arthropods. The adult sexual stage ... More


Middle and Upper Pliocene hominins

Francisco J. Ayala and Camilo J. Cela-Conde

in Processes in Human Evolution: The journey from early hominins to Neandertals and Modern Humans

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780198739906
eISBN:
9780191802836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198739906.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter analyzes the hominins of the Middle and Upper Pliocene, encompassing a considerable diversification of the genus Australopithecus, which is polyphyletic; it brings also into ... More


The emergence of the genus Homo

Francisco J. Ayala and Camilo J. Cela-Conde

in Processes in Human Evolution: The journey from early hominins to Neandertals and Modern Humans

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780198739906
eISBN:
9780191802836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198739906.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter’s focus is the emergence of the genus Homo in the Pliocene, proposing Homo habilis as the oldest species. The features of the H. habilis taxon are examined by means of the specimens from ... More


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