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Pre‐industrial Europe

Andreas Osiander

in Before the State: Systemic Political Change in the West from the Greeks to the French Revolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198294511
eISBN:
9780191717048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198294511.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

In the late pre-Reformation period, re-urbanization and increasing monetization impacting on what had become a profoundly rural civilization gave rise to political structures markedly different from ... More


The Use and Survival of Coins and of Gold and Silver in the Vesuvian Cities

Jean Andreau

in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199233359
eISBN:
9780191716348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0011
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter examines monetization in early imperial Italy. Evidence from Vesuvian cities is compared with evidence from other sites. It is shown that in Graeco-Roman antiquity, coins were by far the ... More


Money and Credit in Roman Egypt

Peter van Minnen

in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199233359
eISBN:
9780191716348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0012
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

The textual evidence for Egypt is unique for the Roman Empire. Papyrus documents allow us to trace developments in the economy over time. However, papyrologists have not yet digested the information ... More


Addressing Possible Objections

EYAL ZAMIR and BARAK MEDINA

in Law, Economics, and Morality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372168
eISBN:
9780199776078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372168.003.05
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter tackles a number of methodological and principled objections to the incorporation of deontological constraints into economic analysis. It discusses the claims that such incorporation ... More


Introduction

W. V. Harris

in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199233359
eISBN:
9780191716348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0001
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This introductory chapter presents an overview of the succeeding chapters. Topics covered include the use of bullion as money, reasons for the spread of coinage, credit money, money supply, economic ... More


Money and Tragedy

Richard Seaford

in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199233359
eISBN:
9780191716348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0004
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

In 6th century BC, the advanced Greek city-states were rapidly and pervasively monetized, largely through the introduction of coinage. It has been suggested that this monetization was a crucial ... More


Coinage as ‘Code’ in Ptolemaic Egypt

J. G. Manning

in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199233359
eISBN:
9780191716348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0006
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter discusses the use of money in Ptolemaic Egypt in relation to the development of the state. The aim is to summarize some recent work and to set the process of monetization into a broader ... More


Money and Prices in the Early Roman Empire

David Kessler and Peter Temin

in The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199233359
eISBN:
9780191716348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233359.003.0008
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter examines the role of money as a standard of value. It argues that monetization in the sense of using monetary measures was virtually universal in the early Roman Empire. This assertion ... More


Maternal Mortality as an Indicator of the Standard of Living in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Slavonia

Eugene A. Hammel and Aaron Gullickson

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This study of maternal mortality on the Croatian-Bosnian border in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries shows that the chance of death in childbirth was sensitive to major changes in the social ... More


Eighteenth‐Century Developments Propitious to Egalitarianism

Henry Phelps Brown

in Egalitarianism and the Generation of Inequality

Published in print:
1988
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198286486
eISBN:
9780191596773
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198286481.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Much more is required than faith in the equality of man before egalitarianism can offer itself even as a notion of policy; at least three conditions may be specified. First, personal resources must ... More


Property Banking, Free Banking, and Branch Banking

Howard Bodenhorn

in State Banking in Early America: A New Economic History

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195147766
eISBN:
9780199832910
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147766.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

In an effort to encourage immigration and expand commercial agriculture, several southern states created and subsidized plantation banks designed to monetize agricultural economies and provide ... More


Quantifying the Roman Economy: Integration, Growth, Decline?

Alan Bowman and Andrew Wilson

in Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199562596
eISBN:
9780191721458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562596.003.0001
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter discusses the definitions and characteristics of the economic processes and trends in the Roman Empire, and outlines the methods by which quantification of data in written and ... More


Money, Rent, Taxes, and Investment

Giovanni R. Ruffini

in Medieval Nubia: A Social and Economic History

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199891634
eISBN:
9780199980048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199891634.003.0007
Subject:
Classical Studies, African History: BCE to 500CE, Asian and Middle Eastern History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter examines Nubian economic and fiscal issues. Old Nubian accounts show patterns in the gold and silver payments that are consistent with an exchange rate between the two metals. This rate ... More


The Robin Hood Rules for Smart Giving

Michael Weinstein and Ralph Bradburd

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231158367
eISBN:
9780231535243
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231158367.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

The Robin Hood Foundation is a charitable organization focused on alleviating poverty in New York City. One of the book's authors is the foundation's senior vice president. In that role he developed ... More


China and Europe

Joel Mokyr

in The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074772
eISBN:
9780199854981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074772.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter summarizes Chinese achievements in technological innovations. It applies physical and environmental factors to a comparative study between China and Europe. The chapter notes that the ... More


Zeus in Aeschylus: The Factor of Monetization

Jan N. Bremmer and Andrew Erskine

in The Gods of Ancient Greece: Identities and Transformations

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748637980
eISBN:
9780748670758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748637980.003.0010
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Religions

This chapter offers a new interpretation of the opening of the famous Hymn to Zeus in Aeschylus’ tragedy the Agamemnon (160-6) with its reference to weighing in the divine scales. Zeus is imagined as ... More


The Meaning of Present Discounted Values

Michael M. Weinstein and Ralph M. Bradburd

in The Robin Hood Rules for Smart Giving

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231158367
eISBN:
9780231535243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231158367.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

This chapter examines the notion of present discounted value (PDV). Funders prefer benefits that accrue immediately to identical benefits that accrue in the future. There are three rationales for the ... More


Six Purposes

Michael M. Weinstein and Ralph M. Bradburd

in The Robin Hood Rules for Smart Giving

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231158367
eISBN:
9780231535243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231158367.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

This chapter discusses the six purposes of Relentless Monetization (RM): shared vocabulary for internal deliberations, communication with grantees, transparency, diagnosis, ranking grants, and ... More


Conclusion

Michael M. Weinstein and Ralph M. Bradburd

in The Robin Hood Rules for Smart Giving

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231158367
eISBN:
9780231535243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231158367.003.0013
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

This book has demonstrated how Relentless Monetization (RM) provides a sound basis by which to practice smart philanthropy. RM offers a straightforward and transparent way to compare the value of one ... More


Greek Economy and Egyptian Society in the Third Century

Jean Bingen

in Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748615780
eISBN:
9780748670727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748615780.003.0017
Subject:
Classical Studies, Archaeology: Classical

The Macedonian conquest of Egypt in 332 BCE and the following Ptolemaic monarchy brought Greek economic habits to a country with only limited previous exposure to them, particularly a high degree of ... More


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