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Formal Semantics

Wayne A. Davis

in Nondescriptive Meaning and Reference: An Ideational Semantics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199261659
eISBN:
9780191603099
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261652.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter shows that the treatment of names as having nondescriptive, indefinable senses does not preclude a powerful formal semantics; that the referential properties of names can be treated ... More


Other network models: A brief introduction to two specialized network models, the small-world model and the exponential random graph

M. E. J. Newman

in Networks: An Introduction

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199206650
eISBN:
9780191594175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206650.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes two of the best-known additional types of network models: the small-world model and exponential random graphs. Exercises are provided at the end of the chapter.


Space and Action

Ross Harrison

in On What There Must Be

Published in print:
1974
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198245070
eISBN:
9780191680830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245070.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter considers whether it is an essential feature of any comprehensible world that its objects should be spatially linked with each other and with their perceiver. The chapter aims to ... More


Time

Ross Harrison

in On What There Must Be

Published in print:
1974
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198245070
eISBN:
9780191680830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245070.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter first addresses the necessity of space or time. It then deals with the particular model world to derive time. It is seen that in this particular model world, the protagonist cannot ... More


Perception

Ross Harrison

in On What There Must Be

Published in print:
1974
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198245070
eISBN:
9780191680830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245070.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The next question to be considered is whether the general model world at its present second level of necessity or austerity contains some feature which means that it is impossible for a world just of ... More


Homogeneity and Clustering

P. J. E. Peebles

in The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691209838
eISBN:
9780691206714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691209838.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter traces the history of the development of ideas on the large-scale structure of the universe. Modern discussions of the nature of the large-scale matter distribution can be traced back to ... More


The World in a Machine: Origins and Impacts of Early Computerized Global Systems Models

Paul N. Edwards

in Systems, Experts, and Computers: The Systems Approach in Management and Engineering, World War II and After

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262082853
eISBN:
9780262275873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262082853.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the origins of two types of simulation models, namely numerical models of weather and climate, and world-dynamics models that are offshoots of a general method known as “system ... More


Mortuary Practices, Cults, and Social Systems

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0005
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter argues that, from the beginning, the same-gender/same-age cults have been autonomous communal cults. The evolution of the American Bottom, therefore, is largely the evolution of the ... More


An Account of Similarity

Michael Weisberg

in Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199933662
eISBN:
9780199333004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199933662.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops the weighted feature-matching account of similarity. Most accounts of the model–world relation draw on logical properties such as isomorphism and homomorphism. In contrast, ... More


Englishes in Tristan da Cunha, St Helena, Bermuda and the Falkland Islands: PCE, non-PCE or both? Blurred Boundaries in the Atlantic

Daniel Schreier

in Modelling World Englishes: A Joint Approach to Postcolonial and Non-Postcolonial Varieties

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781474445863
eISBN:
9781474490771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474445863.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

This chapter looks at the interplay of extra- and intra-territorial forces that shaped the evolution and sociolinguistic characteristics of four varieties of English spoken in the Atlantic Ocean: the ... More


World Pictures and World Models: (1961)

Hans Blumenberg

in History, Metaphors, Fables: A Hans Blumenberg Reader

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781501732829
eISBN:
9781501748004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501732829.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter examines Hans Blumenberg's speech “World Pictures and World Models,” which he gave after he was appointed full professor at the University of Gießen in 1960. In the modern age, the ... More


Cahokian Mortuary Practices: The Media of World Renewal Ritual

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0012
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter uses the mortuary data of the Mississippian period of the American Bottom as evidence in support of the heterarchical polyistic locale-centric account, in general, and of the World ... More


Mound 72: Funerary Monument or World Renewal Icon?

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0013
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter provides a description of the mound and its associated material features and contents, a summary description of its larger context (Woodhenge 72), and a critique of the hierarchical ... More


Cahokia as a World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter provides an elucidation of the World Renewal Cult Heterarchy model. This model is specifically designed to articulate the type of social system manifested in Cahokia and the other mound ... More


The “Rural” Settlement Pattern

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter critiques Thomas Emerson's interpretation of the countryside settlement pattern, which he claims supports the view that Cahokia was the dominant centralized power. It also interprets ... More


The configuration model

Mark Newman

in Networks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805090
eISBN:
9780191843235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805090.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A discussion of the most fundamental of network models, the configuration model, which is a random graph model of a network with a specified degree sequence. Following a definition of the model a ... More


A Vision of a Science of Economics

Bernt P. Stigum

in Econometrics in a Formal Science of Economics: Theory and the Measurement of Economic Relations

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028585
eISBN:
9780262323109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028585.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The chapter presents Ragnar Frisch and Trygve Haavelmo’s vision of a science of economics, explicates in simple terms the meaning of a formal theory-data confrontation, and describes and resolves an ... More


Network search

Mark Newman

in Networks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805090
eISBN:
9780191843235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805090.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter gives a discussion of search processes on networks. It begins with a discussion of web search, including crawlers and web ranking algorithms such as PageRank. Search in distributed ... More


Grassroots English, Learner English, Second-language English, English as a Lingua Franca …: What’s in a Name?

Sarah Buschfeld

in World Englishes at the Grassroots

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474467551
eISBN:
9781474495684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474467551.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

The chapter offers a conceptual overview, discussing the notion of ‘grassroots Englishes’ along with other related phenomena pertaining to the spread of the English language worldwide (‘learner ... More


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