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Validity

Graham Priest

in Doubt Truth to be a Liar

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199263288
eISBN:
9780191603631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263280.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter provides a general account of the nature of validity, both deductive and non-deductive, which may be accepted depending on what one takes the correct logic to be. It argues against a ... More


Vagueness in Context

Stewart Shapiro

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199280391
eISBN:
9780191707162
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280391.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This book develops both a philosophical and a formal, model-theoretic account of the meaning, function, and logic of vague terms in an idealized version of a natural language like English. Extensions ... More


Refinements and Extensions I: So-Called “Higher-Order Vagueness”

Stewart Shapiro

in Vagueness in Context

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199280391
eISBN:
9780191707162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280391.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Problems with the simplified account and some unnatural features of the model theory lead to refinements of the philosophical account, the model theoretic semantics, and perhaps the logic as well. ... More


Foundations without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic

Stewart Shapiro

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250296
eISBN:
9780191598388
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250290.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

A language is second‐order, or higher‐order, if it has bound variables that range over properties or sets of the items in the range of the ordinary, first‐order variables. This book presents a formal ... More


Incoherence and Chauvinism

Mark Schroeder

in Slaves of the Passions

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199299508
eISBN:
9780191714917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299508.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter continues the investigation of how it is that Ronnie's desire explains his reason. The Standard Model for normative explanations is introduced by way of an illustration. The Standard ... More


Set Theory, Model Theory, and Computability Theory

Wilfrid Hodges

in The Development of Modern Logic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195137316
eISBN:
9780199867912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137316.003.0032
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter surveys set theory, model theory, and computability theory: how they first emerged from the foundations of mathematics, and how they have developed since. There are any amounts of ... More


Determinateness, Stratification, and Revenge

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0024
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Does the presence of a transfinitely iterable determinacy operator re-create the difficulties with stratified truth theories? This chapter argues that it does not. It begins by pointing out the many ... More


Hyper‐Determinacy and Revenge

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0028
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Do dialetheic theories do better as regard revenge problems than theories that restrict excluded middle? This chapter argues that they do not, and shows in particular that each of the revenge ... More


Models and Models

Newton C. A. da Costa and Steven French

in Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195156515
eISBN:
9780199785896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515651X.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

It has long been argued that the model-theoretic approach acquires a certain plausibility from the fact that models are also extensively used in science itself. However, the sense of “model” here is ... More


Refinements and Extensions II: Objects, Identity, and Abstracts

Stewart Shapiro

in Vagueness in Context

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199280391
eISBN:
9780191707162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280391.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The present study, so far, has focused exclusively on vague predicates such as ‘bald’, ‘tall’, and predicates such as ‘determinately bald’ and ‘borderline bald‘. Intuitively, what makes a predicate ... More


Contract theory analysis of managerial accounting issues 1

Stanley Baiman

in Contemporary Issues in Management Accounting

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199283361
eISBN:
9780191712623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283361.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Contract theory has become the dominant analytical research paradigm in managerial accounting over the last two decades, informing the managerial accounting literature both directly and indirectly. ... More


Theories and Models

Newton C. A. da Costa and Steven French

in Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195156515
eISBN:
9780199785896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515651X.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Tarski's innovation performed a double duty in both mathematics and philosophy. In formalizing an intuitive notion of truth-as-correspondence in terms of “sentence s is true in a structure” and ... More


Higher‐order Logic

Stewart Shapiro

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195148770
eISBN:
9780199835560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195148770.003.0025
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter provides an overview of second-order logic and higher-order logic generally. It provides the basic formal languages, deductive systems, and model-theoretic semantics, including a brief ... More


Causes of Traps

Chris Argyris

in Organizational Traps: Leadership, Culture, Organizational Design

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199586165
eISBN:
9780191702426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586165.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Strategy

This chapter presents a theory that addresses the following questions: Why do human beings produce results that are counterproductive to their own stated interests and intentions? Why do they seem ... More


Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 93, August 2009

Laurent Lellouch, Rainer Sommer, Benjamin Svetitsky, Anastassios Vladikas, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199691609
eISBN:
9780191731792
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691609.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The book is based on the lectures delivered at the XCIII Session of the ´Ecole de Physique des Houches, held in August, 2009. The aim of the event was to familiarize the new generation of Ph.D. ... More


Logical Consequence, Proof Theory, and Model Theory

Stewart Shapiro

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195148770
eISBN:
9780199835560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195148770.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter provides broad coverage of the notion of logical consequence, exploring its modal, semantic, and epistemic aspects. It develops the contrast between proof-theoretic notion of ... More


Interlude on Vagueness, and the Paradoxes of König and Berry

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses vagueness and its possible connection to the semantic paradoxes, with particular reference to the continuum-valued semantics. Focus is put on higher order vagueness and whether ... More


Self-Deception and the Dolphin Model of Cognition

Iuliia Pliushch and Thomas Metzinger

in Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029346
eISBN:
9780262330213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029346.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Julia Pliushch and Thomas Metzinger attempt to shed light on the phenomenon of self-deception using some of the conceptual tools offered by Metzinger’s self-model theory of subjectivity. They analyze ... More


Beginnings

Nicholas J. J. Smith

in Vagueness and Degrees of Truth

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199233007
eISBN:
9780191716430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233007.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The first part of the book provides a conceptual map of theories of vagueness. At the centre of the map is the classical view of vagueness, according to which the semantics of vague language is ... More


Terms and Questions

Stewart Shapiro

in Foundations without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250296
eISBN:
9780191598388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250290.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

A logic consists of a formal language, a deductive system and/or a model‐theoretic semantics. A formal language is a mathematical model of a natural language, focusing attention on features relevant ... More


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