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Lexical Borrowing, Split (Mixed) Languages, and Creole Formation

CAROL MYERS-SCOTTON

in Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198299530
eISBN:
9780191708107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter discusses three related contact phenomena: lexical borrowing, mixed (split) languages, and creole formation. They all show the effects of the universal split in languages between the ... More


Bad Language: Are Some Words Better than Others?

Edwin L. Battistella

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172485
eISBN:
9780199788187
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172485.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, English Language

Are pronunciations such as cawfee and chawklit bad English? Is slang improper? Is it incorrect to mix English and Spanish, as in Yo quiero Taco Bell? Can you write “Who do you trust?” rather than ... More


The art of speech

Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

in The Languages of the Amazon

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199593569
eISBN:
9780191739385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593569.003.0013
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

Every Amazonian language has a remarkably rich lexicon, and a plethora of genres with their varied stylistic features, as befits essentially oral cultures. Shamans, with their supernatural powers, ... More


Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Codeswitching

Jeff MacSwan (ed.)

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262027892
eISBN:
9780262320351
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027892.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

Codeswitching is the alternate use of two or more languages among bilingual interlocutors. It is distinct from borrowing, which involves the phonological and morphological integration of a word from ... More


Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes

Carol Myers-Scotton

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198299530
eISBN:
9780191708107
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

Contact Linguistics is a critical investigation of grammatical structures when bilingual speakers use their two or more languages in the same clause. Myers-Scotton examines major contact ... More


On Non-integrated Vocabulary in the Mixed-language Accounts of St Paul’s Cathedral, 1315–1405

Laura Wright

in Latin in Medieval Britain

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780197266083
eISBN:
9780191851476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197266083.003.0012
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History

Accounts of institutions and private individuals between the Norman Conquest and about 1500 were routinely written in a non-random mixture of Medieval Latin, Anglo-Norman, and Middle English. If the ... More


Conclusions

Anne Storch

in Secret Manipulations: Language and Context in Africa

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199768974
eISBN:
9780199914425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199768974.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

The concluding chapter discusses how the conscious creation of specific linguistic forms by speakers contributes to specific forms of deliberate language change, and how language necessarily—because ... More


Introduction: The Problem of Language Acquisition When There Are Two

Norbert Francis

in Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016391
eISBN:
9780262298384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This book explores how second language (L2) learning might differ from first language (L1) acquisition and whether L2 learning is different from monolingual L1 acquisition if it begins in early ... More


Nominal Contact in Michif

Carrie Gillon and Nicole Rosen

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198795339
eISBN:
9780191836596
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198795339.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families, Syntax and Morphology

Michif is an endangered language spoken by approximately a few hundred Métis people, mostly located in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada. Michif is usually categorized as a mixed language (Bakker ... More


Rationale

Shana Poplack

in Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in the Grammar

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190256388
eISBN:
9780190256401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190256388.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter identifies the rationale behind this volume: the enduring controversy over how to theorize language-mixing strategies. Relating this controversy to discrepancies in the conceptualization ... More


Introduction

Carrie Gillon and Nicole Rosen

in Nominal Contact in Michif

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198795339
eISBN:
9780191836596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198795339.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter provides some background on the history of Michif, the language spoken by at least a few hundred Métis people. The Métis were originally located in the Red River Valley, and are today ... More


A variationist perspective on borrowing

Shana Poplack

in Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in the Grammar

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190256388
eISBN:
9780190256401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190256388.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter reviews the analytical and methodological tenets associated with the variationist perspective on language and outlines its specific applications to the study of language mixing. Key ... More


Status of the category ‘mixed language’

Carrie Gillon and Nicole Rosen

in Nominal Contact in Michif

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198795339
eISBN:
9780191836596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198795339.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter highlights the fact Michif can be described straightforwardly within a generative framework. While it has some features that are the result of contact of two very different systems (two ... More


Epilogue

Shana Poplack

in Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in the Grammar

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190256388
eISBN:
9780190256401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190256388.003.0012
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

Analysis of language mixing in the actual production data of bilingual individuals has permitted us to test and overturn many long-standing assumptions about borrowing and code-switching empirically: ... More


Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in the Grammar

Shana Poplack

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190256388
eISBN:
9780190256401
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190256388.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

In virtually every bilingual situation empirically studied, borrowed items make up the overwhelming majority of other-language material, but short shrift has been given to this major manifestation of ... More


Bilingual corpora

Shana Poplack

in Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in the Grammar

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190256388
eISBN:
9780190256401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190256388.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter details the difficulties inherent in building corpora pertinent to the process of lexical borrowing, reviews methods for gathering data capable of identifying the grammars giving rise to ... More


Overabundance resulting from language contact: Complex cell-mates in Gurindji Kriol

Felicity Meakins and Sasha Wilmoth

in The Complexities of Morphology

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198861287
eISBN:
9780191893346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198861287.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

The reduction of morphological complexity, particularly in inflectional paradigms, is not uncommon in language contact. One area of morphological complexity which has received less attention is ... More


Relabeling in Language Genesis

Claire Lefebvre

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199945290
eISBN:
9780190201203
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945290.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

Relabeling is a process that consists in assigning a lexical entry of languagex a new label derived from a phonetic string drawn from languagey. This process plays a central role in the formation of ... More


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