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Fragments of Consciousness?

Tim Bayne

in The Unity of Consciousness

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199215386
eISBN:
9780191594786
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215386.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

This chapter evaluates the tenability of the unity thesis by examining the evidence for phenomenal disunity within the context of number of quite different domains. The first third of the chapter ... More


Disorders of Consciousness and the Permanent Vegetative State

Lois Shepherd

in If That Ever Happens to Me: Making Life and Death Decisions after Terri Schiavo

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807832950
eISBN:
9781469605746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807888643_shepherd.5
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines what we know and are learning about the permanent vegetative state and the minimally conscious state, as well as the new, promising techniques to distinguish between the two. It ... More


Circuit Mechanisms Underlying Behavioral Variability during Recovery of Consciousness following Severe Brain Injury

Nicholas D. Schiff

in The Dynamic Brain: An Exploration of Neuronal Variability and Its Functional Significance

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393798
eISBN:
9780199897049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393798.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Recovery of consciousness following severe brain injuries typically evolves through several stages marked by considerable behavioral variability. This chapter considers the role of ‘circuit-level’ ... More


Minimally Conscious States and Pain: A Different Approach to Patient Ethics

Valerie Gray Hardcastle

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

In this chapter, Hardcastle questions whether consciousness determines how much we should care about a living being. Instead of consciousness, Hardcastle focuses on pain and argues that consciousness ... More


Disorders of Consciousness Following Severe Brain Injury

Joseph J. Fins and Nicholas D. Schiff

in Neuroethics in Practice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195389784
eISBN:
9780199979233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195389784.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter reviews the diagnostic classification of disorders of consciousness, severe brain injuries that span a spectrum of brain states ranging from coma to the vegetative and minimally ... More


Stimulating Brains, Altering Minds

Walter Glannon

in Brain, Body, and Mind: Neuroethics with a Human Face

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199734092
eISBN:
9780199894475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199734092.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter considers the use of deep-brain stimulation as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. It addresses the question of whether a person with a disease of the mind can ... More


What Is It Like To Be in a Disorder of Consciousness?

Caroline Schnakers

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter explains and contrasts various scales that neurologists use to measure consciousness. These scales attempt to differentiate patients in a minimally conscious state from those in a ... More


Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Modern medicine enables us to keep many people alive after they have suffered severe brain damage and show no reliable outward signs of consciousness. Many such patients are misdiagnosed as being in ... More


What Is Good for Them? Best Interests and Severe Disorders of Consciousness

Jennifer Hawkins

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Hawkins sees the moral debates surrounding brain-damaged patients as coming down to two questions: whether the patients suffer and whether they derive benefit from their lives. In Hawkins’ view, life ... More


Moral Conflict in the Minimally Conscious State

Joshua Shepherd

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter explains the values that conflict in choices of whether to let brain-damaged patients die. The author argues for the moral significance of consciousness, including not only phenomenal ... More


When bright lines blur: Deconstructing distinctions between disorders of consciousness

David B. Fischer and Robert D. Truog

in Neuroethics: Anticipating the future

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198786832
eISBN:
9780191839894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786832.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Disorders of consciousness are devastating to patients and present profound challenges to clinicians, scientists, philosophers, and ethicists alike. In the past, distinguishing between levels of ... More


Modes of Consciousness

Tim Bayne and Jakob Hohwy

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

In this chapter, modes of consciousness are distinguished from states of consciousness. A mode of consciousness is a global way of being conscious, such as waking, dreaming, seizures, and the ... More


Justice, Profound Neurological Injury, and Brain Death

Michael Nair-Collins and James M. Hitt

in Medicine and Social Justice: Essays on the Distribution of Health Care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199744206
eISBN:
9780190267551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199744206.003.0040
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines issues of social justice as it pertains to the provision of health care for individuals suffering from profound neurological injury and brain death. Advances in neurology enable ... More


Decoding Thoughts in Behaviorally Nonresponsive Patients

Adrian M. Owen and Lorina Naci

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes the recently developed methods by which neuroscientists can detect consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. These methods involve the use of functional magnetic ... More


The Geography of Unconsciousness: From Apparent Death to the Minimally Conscious State

Jeffrey P. Baker

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter recounts the broad medical and cultural history of ideas about unconsciousness and the minimally conscious state. It provides a useful background concerning the various issues and ... More


Lay Attitudes to Withdrawal of Treatment in Disorders of Consciousness and Their Normative Significance

Jacob Gipson, Guy Kahane, and Julian Savulescu

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter first outlines a general framework for addressing ethical issues by applying Beauchamp and Childress’s principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. The authors then ... More


Persistent Vegetative State, Akinetic Mutism, and Consciousness

Will Davies and Neil Levy

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter introduce a healthy dose of skepticism about whether brain scans can prove any significant intentions, agency, or consciousness in brain-damaged patients. The authors argue that the ... More


Brain Islands

Marcello Massimini and Giulio Tononi

in Sizing up Consciousness: Towards an objective measure of the capacity for experience

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198728443
eISBN:
9780191841828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198728443.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter examines the clinical problem of detecting consciousness in brain-injured patients who emerge from coma in a state of behavioral unresponsiveness. Intensive care medicine is artificially ... More


Finding Consciousness: An Introduction

Meghan Brayton and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter introduces key ethical and practical issues involving patients with disorders of consciousness and provides background information for readers who are new to these issues. It reviews the ... More


Guardianship and the Injured Brain: Representation and the Rights of Patients and Families

Joseph J. Fins and Barbara Pohl

in Finding Consciousness: The Neuroscience, Ethics, and Law of Severe Brain Damage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190280307
eISBN:
9780190280338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190280307.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The authors of this chapter address legal and policy issues surrounding guardianship of brain-damaged patients. Guardians assist patients in many ways and make many important decisions regarding ... More


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