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The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-industrial West

John Landers

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199279579
eISBN:
9780191719448
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279579.001.0001
Subject:
History, Social History, Economic History

This book offers a new approach to the pre-industrial past in Europe and the Mediterranean basin from the Roman Republic to the fall of Napoleon. It takes as its starting point E. A. Wrigley’s ... More


Population, Power, and Technology

John Landers

in The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-industrial West

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199279579
eISBN:
9780191719448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279579.003.0013
Subject:
History, Social History, Economic History

The components of armed force are technology, manpower, and economic resources of various kinds. Committing manpower and economic resources to war requires diverting them from the productive economy. ... More


Battlefields before Gunpowder

John Landers

in The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-industrial West

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199279579
eISBN:
9780191719448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279579.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History, Economic History

Military technology incorporated the elements of hardware, procedure, and personnel in the same way as the technology of civilian production, and before the coming of gunpowder it was equally reliant ... More


The Soviet Exploitation of German Science and the Origins of Scientific Containment

Paul Maddrell

in Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945-1961

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199267507
eISBN:
9780191708404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267507.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by discussing that although scientific intelligence operations against the Soviet Union were among the causes of the Cold War, a decade later, they were the ones who helped ... More


Introduction: Time, Space, and Population

John Landers

in The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-industrial West

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199279579
eISBN:
9780191719448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279579.003.0001
Subject:
History, Social History, Economic History

Time and space are intimately related in the world of human affairs no less than in the world of modern physics. The longest time scale is that of the so-called longue duree, a term that is ... More


War and the Organic Economy

John Landers

in The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-industrial West

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199279579
eISBN:
9780191719448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279579.003.0009
Subject:
History, Social History, Economic History

The political and social context of any conflict affected strategy and operations, but variations were constrained systematically by the limitations of the military technology being used and by the ... More


The Evolution of Armed Conflict in the Twentieth Century and the International Legal Response—Towards Convergence

Crawford Emily

in The Treatment of Combatants and Insurgents under the Law of Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199578962
eISBN:
9780191722608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578962.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

The first chapter of this book examines how the traditional legal distinction between international and non-international armed conflict has become, in practice, increasingly blurred through the last ... More


The Prisoners-of-war Come Home

Paul Maddrell

in Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945-1961

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199267507
eISBN:
9780191708404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267507.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on an even more valuable type of informant: Germans forced to work in the Soviet Union itself. It explains that the war showed the Soviet leaders that their country was backward ... More


Queen Of The Battlefield

Eric Dorn Brose

in The Kaiser's Army: Technological, Tactical, and Operational Dilemmas in Germany During the Machine Age 1870-1918

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195143355
eISBN:
9780199872015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143355.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter presents a picture of the German Army in the mid-1880s. At the apex was a gerontocracy headed by Kaiser William, Helmuth von Moltke, and 18 aging corps commanders whom the sentimental ... More


The Plans of Schlieffen

Eric Dorn Brose

in The Kaiser's Army: Technological, Tactical, and Operational Dilemmas in Germany During the Machine Age 1870-1918

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195143355
eISBN:
9780199872015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143355.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on Alfred von Schlieffen, chief of the Great General Staff. Schlieffen was a dogmatist, a doctrinaire, and a theoretist. His dogma was the offensive; his doctrine was ... More


Classical Antiquity

Joel Mokyr

in The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074772
eISBN:
9780199854981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074772.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter discusses some significant technological breakthroughs that were made during classical times. It observes that some of the important achievements of classical technology were in those ... More


“We Have Got the Maxim Gun”

Paul K. Macdonald

in Networks of Domination: The Social Foundations of Peripheral Conquest in International Politics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199362165
eISBN:
9780190217952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199362165.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter defines peripheral conquest and describes some of the reasons why peripheral conquest differs from the cases of European interstate conquest that attract most attention from ... More


Technology in the 21st Century

Carroll Pursell

in American Thought and Culture in the 21st Century

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748626014
eISBN:
9780748670673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748626014.003.0012
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

In this chapter Caroll Pursell considers the changing landscape of technology in the early twenty-first century, arguing that technological developments are always a mixture of old and new. He traces ... More


A Transformation Gap?: American Innovations and European Military Change

Theo Farrell, Terriff Terry, and Osinga Frans (eds)

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804763776
eISBN:
9780804781800
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804763776.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

NATO member states are all undergoing some form of military transformation. Despite a shared vision, transformation has been primarily a US-led process centered on the exploitation of new information ... More


Understanding Adaptation

David Barno and Nora Bensahel

in Adaptation under Fire: How Militaries Change in Wartime

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780190672058
eISBN:
9780190937348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190672058.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines why military adaptation is so difficult. All organizations resist change, but militaries resist change even more because of the inherent uncertainty of the battlefield, ... More


Improving Adaptability in the US Military

David Barno and Nora Bensahel

in Adaptation under Fire: How Militaries Change in Wartime

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780190672058
eISBN:
9780190937348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190672058.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

In this final chapter, the authors recommend ways to improve the adaptability of the US military so it is prepared to prevail in the wars of the 21st century. To improve adaptability in doctrine, the ... More


American Adaptation of French Warfare, 1848–1865

Michael A. Bonura

in Under the Shadow of Napoleon: French Influence on the American Way of Warfare from Independence to the Eve of World War II

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814709429
eISBN:
9780814723173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814709429.003.0004
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter illustrates how the U.S. military adapted the French combat method into the army's intellectual framework, as the changes in technology had led to a reevaluation of the American system ... More


Had a Distinct Template for a ‘Western Way of War’ been Established before 1800?

David Parrott

in The Changing Character of War

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199596737
eISBN:
9780191803543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199596737.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the development of the Western way of war. Since the seventeenth century, Western military superiority has rested on the ability of states and peoples to stay ahead of the game ... More


US Military Adaptability Today

David Barno and Nora Bensahel

in Adaptation under Fire: How Militaries Change in Wartime

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780190672058
eISBN:
9780190937348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190672058.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter argues that the US military is not adaptable enough for the challenges of future warfare discussed in Chapter 9. In the area of doctrine, excessive amounts hinder creativity and ... More


“Creative Destruction”: War and Technology

B. Zorina Khan

in Inventing Ideas: Patents, Prizes, and the Knowledge Economy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190936075
eISBN:
9780190936112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936075.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, Economic History

The strongest case for administered innovation systems relies on government sponsorship of research and development and technological discoveries during World War II and the modern postwar era. The ... More


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