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Randomness in Evolution

John Tyler Bonner

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book challenges a central tenet of evolutionary biology. The book makes the bold and provocative claim that some biological diversity may be explained by something other than natural selection. ... More


Small Organisms and Neutral Morphologies

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews how morphological randomness is dealt with at different size levels, beginning with eukaryotic microorganisms, where we see the greatest amount of morphological randomness in ... More


Nucleic Acids and Molecular Tools

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines nucleic acids, polymers of RNA and DNA, which act as the templates for protein synthesis. High levels of nucleic acids in microbes contribute to their elevated nitrogen and ... More


Mawangdui: Early Healing in China

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0011
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

The earth of China has revealed a treasure that was uncovered for almost exactly two thousand years. The excavation in Mawangdui proved to be a direct probe into the cultural heart of the early Han ... More


Farewell to Demons and Spirits

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0018
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter focuses on the disappearance of demons and microorganisms from teachings on the causation of illnesses and the understanding of the pharmaceutical tradition and examines the question of ... More


New Pathogens, and Morality

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0019
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter focuses on the nonexistence of demons and the microorganisms in new medicine and examines the pathogens in new medicine. Cold, dampness, wind, heat, dryness, immoderation or excesses in ... More


Pharmaceutics without Medicine

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0021
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

According to the opponents of the state idea, drugs formed a central mode of therapy. The opponents of the state idea published their own political manifestos. They attributed different levels of ... More


The Biological Basics of Infectious Disease

Margaret P. Battin, Leslie P. Francis, Jay A. Jacobson, and Charles B. Smith

in The Patient as Victim and Vector: Ethics and Infectious Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195335842
eISBN:
9780199868926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335842.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Infectious diseases, although they vary substantially in their manifestations and causes, share certain common features that make them distinct and remarkable. These diseases can strike suddenly and ... More


Diversity of life in peatlands

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

in The Biology of Peatlands

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198528722
eISBN:
9780191728211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528722.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Peatlands host a wide diversity of species and life forms. The plants are the most obvious, since they provide the structural foundation and are the source of organic compounds derived from ... More


Stomach Cancer

Olof Nyrén and Hans-Olov Adami

in Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311174
eISBN:
9780199865093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311174.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide. Considerable knowledge about potentially causal factors has been gathered during the past few decades. Helicobacter pylori, the strongest ... More


Biodegradation of polymeric systems

In-Joo Chin and Shogo Uematsu

in Nanocomposites with Biodegradable Polymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Future Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199581924
eISBN:
9780191728853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581924.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Biodegradation can be defined as a process in which the degradation results from the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or algae. Biodegradable polymers may be broken down by the ... More


Antarctic Lakes

Johanna Laybourn-Parry and Jemma L. Wadham

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199670499
eISBN:
9780191788536
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670499.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Antarctica possesses a remarkably diverse range of lakes, including freshwater and saline lakes (some as salty as the Dead Sea), tidal freshwater lakes (epishelf lakes), lakes on ice shelves and ... More


Microbes in Extreme Environments: Implications for Life on the Early Earth and Other Planets

Dawn Cardace and Tori M. Hoehler

in Serpentine: The Evolution and Ecology of a Model System

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520268357
eISBN:
9780520948457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520268357.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Delineating the boundaries of the biosphere is an area of exciting research, integrating work in biology, geology, and chemistry. Of particular interest is how microorganisms adapt to survive under ... More


Preventing Bioweapons Developments: Policy Implications

Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley

in Barriers to Bioweapons: The Challenges of Expertise and Organization for Weapons Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801452888
eISBN:
9780801471933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801452888.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This concluding chapter claims that the book's case studies offer an interesting gradation of variables and illustrate the importance of analyzing their effects as they interact to achieve a ... More


Microorganisms and Invertebrates

Arnold G. van der Valk

in The Biology of Freshwater Wetlands

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199608942
eISBN:
9780191774805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608942.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Aside from plants, insects, birds, reptiles, and even mammals, wetlands are also home to many cryptic species that are barely visible. These include aquatic invertebrates and microscopic species such ... More


Wetland Functions

Arnold G. van der Valk

in The Biology of Freshwater Wetlands

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199608942
eISBN:
9780191774805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608942.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Wetlands play important functions in ecosystems, mainly through the capture and transfer of energy involving plants, animals, and microorganisms. Wetland functions range from primary production to ... More


Invasive Species

Arnold G. van der Valk

in The Biology of Freshwater Wetlands

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199608942
eISBN:
9780191774805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608942.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

An exotic or native species from one continent may spread quickly and dominate wetlands in another continent. Such species are known as invasive species and may displace other native species in ... More


Linking Soil Biodiversity and Human Health: Do Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Contribute to Food Nutrition?

Pedro M. Antunes, Philipp Franken, Dietmar Schwarz, Matthias C. Rillig, Marco Cosme, Martha Scott, and Miranda M. Hart

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Soil microbes are well known to improve plant nutrition. However, there is little information on whether these effects can be beneficial for human health. Using the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ... More


The Evolution of Life on Land

George R. McGhee

in When the Invasion of Land Failed: The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231160575
eISBN:
9780231536363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231160575.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

This chapter discusses the earliest microorganisms that lived on land in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eons. For over 3,000 million years, life on Earth was confined to the oceans, and the land areas ... More


The Tinto River, an Extreme Gaian Environment

Felipe Gómez, David Fernández-Remolar, Elena González-Toril, and Ricardo Amils

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0030
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses extreme ecosystems, which do not only prove that life is robust and adaptable, but also increases the probability of finding life elsewhere in the universe merely because of ... More


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