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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System

Elena Ryzhova, Dennis L. Kolson, and Francisco González-Scarano

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0040
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

A significant proportion of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection develop a neurological syndrome consisting of psychomotor retardation, dementia, and associated findings that ... More


Focal Cerebral Ischemia: The Multifaceted Role of Glial Cells

Ulrich Dirnagl and Josef Priller

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0041
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter begins by looking at the principal mechanisms of ischemic damage and identifies what is known about the specific contribution of glial cells. It then changes the perspective from ... More


The Activation of Microglia as an Early Sign of Disease Progression in Alzheimer's Disease

Robert Veerhuis, Jeroen J.M. Hoozemans, Annachiara Cagnin, Piet Eikelenboom, and Richard B. Banati

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0045
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on the contribution of activated microglia to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at various stages of the pathological cascade. Clusters of activated microglia occur ... More


Reaction of Glial Cells in Infectious Disorders of the Central Nervous System

Martina Deckert and Dirk Schlüter

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0047
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter shows the disease-specific, individual, and finely tuned reaction pattern of astrocytes and microglia during central nervous system (CNS) infections and their contribution to the ... More


Microglial Cells

Wolfgang J. Streit

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on microglial cells. Microglial cell numbers are thought to make up 5% to 20% of the entire central nervous system (CNS) glial cell population. As a conservative estimate, ... More


Brain Inflammation and the Neuronal Fate: from Neurogenesis to Neurodegeneration

Maria Antonietta Ajmone-Cat, Emanuele Cacci, and Luisa Minghetti

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Inflammation is a self-defensive reaction that may develop into a chronic state and become a causative factor in the pathogenesis of a broad range of disabling diseases. Similar to peripheral ... More


Glial Targets of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol

Consuelo Guerri, Gemma Rubert, and Maria Pascual

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Glia are recognized as active partners with neurons as participants in neurotransmission and they play essential roles in axonal conduction, synaptic plasticity, and information processing. In the ... More


Microglia in the developing and mature central nervous system

V. Hugh Perry

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter shows that macrophages play a part in the removal of cellular debris from the developing central nervous system (CNS) and then differentiate to become microglia, the resident macrophages ... More


Imaging inflammation in the brain

Richard B. Banati

in Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Nervous System

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198509806
eISBN:
9780191724596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509806.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter evaluates the different techniques for imaging of brain inflammation. The findings suggest that the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is relatively poor and ... More


CNS immune reactions in Alzheimer’s disease: microglia mediated mechanisms of inflammation in the Alzheimer’s disease brain and their relevance to new therapuetic strategies

Joseph Rogers, Carl J. Kovelowski, and Ron Strohmeyer

in Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Nervous System

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198509806
eISBN:
9780191724596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509806.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter examines the immune reactions of the central nervous system in Alzheimer's disease (AD), analysing the role of microglia in the mechanisms of inflammation in the AD brain and their ... More


Inducible Aromatase in Astroglia: Protection and Recovery from Neural Perturbation in Birds

Kelli A. Duncan and Colin J. Saldanha

in Brain Aromatase, Estrogens, and Behavior

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199841196
eISBN:
9780199979837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199841196.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

In the avian brain, aromatase is constitutive and inducible in neurons and glia respectively. Glial aromatase is rapidly and dramatically upregulated in astroglia (astrocytes and radial glia) ... More


Environmental Influences on Neurodegenerative Disease: The Impact of Systemic Inflammation

Hugh Perry V.

in Cerebral Plasticity: New Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015233
eISBN:
9780262295444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015233.003.0025
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter deals with the effect of systemic inflammation on neurodegenerative disease. It demonstrates that inflammation may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. This chapter shows ... More


Estrogenic Regulation of Glia and Neuroinflammation

Andrea Crespo-Castrillo, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M. Garcia-Segura, and Natalia Yanguas-Casás

in Estrogens and Memory: Basic Research and Clinical Implications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780190645908
eISBN:
9780190645922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190645908.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter on estrogenic regulation of glia and neuroinflammation reviews the role of glial cells in the modulation of synaptic function under physiological conditions and in the regulation of the ... More


Estrogenic Regulation of Neuroprotection and Inflammation in Ischemic Stroke and Aging

Farida Sohrabji, Shameena Bake, and Amutha Selvamani

in Estrogens and Memory: Basic Research and Clinical Implications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780190645908
eISBN:
9780190645922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190645908.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Stroke is the fifth leading cause of mortality and the major cause of long-term disability in the United States. Epidemiological studies report sex differences in ischemic stroke occurrence, ... More


The biology of postpartum psychosis: A hypothetical model

Paola Dazzan

in Perinatal Psychiatry: The legacy of Channi Kumar

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199676859
eISBN:
9780191918346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199676859.003.0026
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

I had the pleasure of meeting Channi Kumar as a junior psychiatry trainee at the Maudsley Hospital, when I elected to work in his clinical service as part of my rotation. It is therefore for me an ... More


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