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Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Graham Bell

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Adaptation is caused by selection continually winnowing the genetic variation created by mutation. In the last ten years, our knowledge of how selection operates on populations in the field and in ... More


Simple selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The action of selection is based on a few simple principles that are general to all self-replicating systems, and which constitute a distinct branch of science. This introductory chapter presents a ... More


What Was Life?: Answers from Three Limit Biologies

Stefan Helmreich, Sophia Roosth, and Michele Friedner

in Sounding the Limits of Life: Essays in the Anthropology of Biology and Beyond

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164809
eISBN:
9781400873869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164809.003.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter examines three limit biologies that theorize what life was—that is, they declare the possible end of “life”: Artificial Life, marine microbiology, and astrobiology. Artificial Life is a ... More


Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology

John Dupré

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691982
eISBN:
9780191738111
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691982.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This volume collects essays written by John Dupré during his time as Director of the ESRC centre for Genomics in Society, and reflects his interest in the implications of emerging ideas in biology ... More


Processes in Microbial Ecology

David L. Kirchman

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198789406
eISBN:
9780191831256
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789406.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

Processes in Microbial Ecology discusses the major processes carried out by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and other protists—the microbes—in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. The ... More


Introduction

John Dupré

in Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691982
eISBN:
9780191738111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691982.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This introduction introduces the central themes that run through the following chapters, and provides a brief summary of the main theses defended in the chapters.


Microbes from Hell

Patrick Forterre

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226265827
eISBN:
9780226265964
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226265964.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

The book “Microbes from Hell” is both an historical report of the discovery of hyperthermophiles and a personal recollection by the author of his own work on these microorganisms. The molecular ... More


Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation

Robert Hudson

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199303281
eISBN:
9780199367627
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199303281.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The main goal of Seeing Things is to criticize a common way of arguing called ‘robustness reasoning’. With robustness reasoning, one claims that an observation report is more likely to be true (or, ... More


Outbreak management

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

An outbreak of infection or food-borne illness may be defined as happening when two or more linked cases of the same illness or the situation where the observed number of cases exceeds the expected ... More


Catheter-associated urinary tract infections

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

It has been estimated that about 10% of hospitalized patients require urinary catheterization. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) following catheterization are the most common infections, accounting for ... More


Surgical site infections

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Despite all the advances in operative techniques and a better understanding of the pathogenesis, surgical site infections (SSIs) continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It ... More


Basic Environmental Health

Annalee Yassi, Tord Kjellström, Theo de Kok, and Tee Guidotti

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195135589
eISBN:
9780199864102
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195135589.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book draws from the social sciences, the natural sciences, and the health sciences to introduce the principles and methods applied in environmental health. It presents an overview of the basic ... More


A Brief Romance with Magic Bullets: René Dubos at the Dawn of the Antibiotic Era

Jill E. Cooper

in Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150698
eISBN:
9780199865185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150698.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In 1939, René Dubos announced his discovery of tyrothricin, the first clinically useful antibiotic. Convinced of the power and efficiency of chemotherapeutic wonder drugs, Dubos abandoned his ... More


Processes in Microbial Ecology

David L. Kirchman

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199586936
eISBN:
9780191774645
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586936.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This book, which discusses the major processes carried out by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and other protists – the microbes – in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems, focuses on ... More


Pasteur's Empire: Bacteriology and Politics in France, Its Colonies, and the World

Aro Velmet

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780190072827
eISBN:
9780190072858
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190072827.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the 1890s, the Pasteur Institute established a network of laboratories that stretched across France’s empire, from Indochina to West Africa. Quickly, researchers at these laboratories became ... More


Journey to the Southwest

Mary Augusta Brazelton

in Mass Vaccination: Citizens' Bodies and State Power in Modern China

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781501739989
eISBN:
9781501739996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501739989.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter discusses microbiology in China's early twentieth century. In contrast to other narratives, the emergence of microbiology as a discipline in China during the early twentieth century did ... More


The Initial Location of Africans and Europeans in Early America

Robert A. McGuire and Philip R. P. Coelho

in Parasites, Pathogens, and Progress: Diseases and Economic Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015660
eISBN:
9780262298391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015660.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the roles that diseases, microbiology, and evolutionary theory play in the interpretation of the economic development and history of America. It explores the initial use of ... More


A Scientific Monopoly

Gerard Sasges

in Imperial Intoxication: Alcohol and the Making of Colonial Indochina

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780824866884
eISBN:
9780824876883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824866884.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

Today, Albert Calmette is remembered as a pioneer of modern medicine for his work on the BCG tuberculosis vaccine, still in use today. Yet in 1891 he was an inexperienced naval doctor, recently ... More


“Finally, My Precious, I Have to Be Brilliant and Make Antibodies”

Thomas Söderqvist

in Science as Autobiography: The Troubled Life of Niels Jern

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300094411
eISBN:
9780300128710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300094411.003.0019
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter discusses fifty-year-old Niels Jerne's arrival in the United States to begin a new and unknown life. He was going to a country whose science he admired, though he scorned America in many ... More


What Does Sensing Depend On?: Transduction, Energy, and the Meeting of Worlds

Kriti Sharma

in Interdependence: Biology and Beyond

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780823265527
eISBN:
9780823266913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823265527.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Two assumptions regarding standard views of sensing are examined: first, that some things can become the organism (i.e., can be assimilated into the organism) while others must always remain ... More


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