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: The Critique of Individualism

Alan Ryan

in The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262948
eISBN:
9780191734762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262948.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter focuses on the thought that ‘rational, economic man’ may be a useful figment of the economists’ imagination but is not a useful figment of the social and political theorist’s. After some ... More


The Evolution of the Rules of the Societal Games

Masahiko Aoki

in Corporations in Evolving Diversity: Cognition, Governance, and Institutional Rules

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199218530
eISBN:
9780191711510
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218530.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Corporate Governance and Accountability, Strategy

Based on the recent development of epistemic game theory, this chapter attempts to resolve longstanding contested issues across social science disciplines about the nature and origin of institutions. ... More


Rational Choice, Area Expertise, and Democratic Transition in Developing Societies: A Theoretical Framework

HeeMin Kim

in Korean Democracy in Transition: A Rational Blueprint for Developing Societies

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813129945
eISBN:
9780813135748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813129945.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses rational choice theory and the aims and purposes of this book. Rational choice theory has been applied in many subfields of political science, such as international relations ... More


Individualism

Paul Spicker

in Reclaiming individualism: Perspectives on public policy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9781447309086
eISBN:
9781447310860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447309086.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

The idea of the independent, self-determining individual has been central to the defence of diversity and difference, but it has also been used to defend the established order. There are three ... More


Contemporary Mainstream Epidemiologic Theory: Biomedical and Lifestyle

Nancy Krieger

in Epidemiology and the People’s Health: Theory and Context

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195383874
eISBN:
9780199893607
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383874.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Chapter 5 critically analyzes the biomedical and lifestyle approaches dominating epidemiologic theorizing and research since the mid-20th century. Tracing the origins of the term “biomedicine,” it ... More


‘The Art of Knowing’: Social and Tacit Dimensions of Knowledge and the Limits of the Community of Practice

Paul Duguid

in Community, Economic Creativity, and Organization

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199545490
eISBN:
9780191720093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199545490.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Knowledge Management

This chapter challenges recent attempts to reduce knowledge to information and to dismiss tacit knowledge as nothing more than uncodified explicit knowledge. Polanyi's notion of a tacit dimension ... More


Introduction

Bhargava Rajeev

in Individualism in Social Science: Forms and Limits of a Methodology

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242796
eISBN:
9780191680564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242796.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter discusses an introduction to the concept of methodological individualism. This is defined as the view in social science according to which all social phenomena must be accounted for in ... More


Social Theory

Philip Pettit

in The Common Mind: An Essay on Psychology, Society, and Politics

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195106459
eISBN:
9780199872251
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195106458.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

What are the implications of holistic individualism for social explanation? This chapter argues that it points us toward a distinctive picture of individual‐level interpretation, under which we seek ... More


Rational People and Religion

Witham Larry

in Marketplace of the Gods: How Economics Explains Religion

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394757
eISBN:
9780199777372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394757.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Economics and cognitive psychology have long debated the nature of human rationality. One says humans have a capacity for rational calculation, while the other points to “cognitive bias” in people’s ... More


Individualism in Social Science: Forms and Limits of a Methodology

Rajeev Bhargava

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242796
eISBN:
9780191680564
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242796.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The literature on methodological individualism is characterized by a widely held view that if the doctrine were stated with sufficient care it would be seen to be trivially true. This book questions ... More


Methodological Individualism as a form of Reductionism

Bhargava Rajeev

in Individualism in Social Science: Forms and Limits of a Methodology

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242796
eISBN:
9780191680564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242796.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter discusses the reductionist variants of methodological individualism (both explanatory and semantic). Only one version of semantic reductionism is discussed, which is a specific theory ... More


The Individual against Politics

Nadia Urbinati

in The Tyranny of the Moderns

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780300182774
eISBN:
9780300189957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300182774.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter discusses who the individuals that contribute to the social order are. It redefines the type of freedom that accompanied the democratization of the postwar period, within the ... More


The Triumph of Utilitarianism and the Marginalist Revolution

Ernesto Screpanti and Stefano Zamagni

in An Outline of the History of Economic Thought

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199279142
eISBN:
9780191602887
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199279144.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Exposes the basic principles of neoclassical theoretical system and then provides an answer to the question: was the marginalist a real revolution? The specific contributions of Jevons, Menger, and ... More


Getting past Hume in the philosophy of social science

Ruth Groff

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0014
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A realist, powers‐based metaphysics is very much on the table in contemporary metaphysics, and is beginning to take hold in philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. On this picture, causality is ... More


Sen's Identities

Kwame Anthony Appiah

in Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume I: Ethics, Welfare, and Measurement

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199239115
eISBN:
9780191716935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239115.003.0026
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter analyses the concept of identity developed by Amartya Sen in recent work, especially in the book Identity and Violence. It discusses the relationship between identity and solidarity, ... More


Philosophy of Social Sciences

Jon Elster

in The Philosophy of Science: A Companion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780190690649
eISBN:
9780190690670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190690649.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter addresses problems and themes in the social sciences. Social sciences are understood specifically as sciences that have (or should have) the following minimal characteristics: their ... More


Temporal Scaling II: A Temporally Dynamic Metamodel

Ralph B. Taylor

in Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814725498
eISBN:
9780814708033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814725498.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter first discusses correspondences between temporal and spatial scaling. Two main parallels are noted. At the very least, concepts of durational ambiguity and time horizon suggest a ... More


Recognizing knowledge and learning in equilibrium models

Lawrence A. Boland

in Equilibrium Models in Economics: Purposes and Critical Limitations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190274320
eISBN:
9780190274368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274320.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter introduces Part II, discussing the limits of equilibrium models. This chapter discusses how the recognition of time and information within models results in the need to deal with ... More


Building models of learning and the equilibrium process

Lawrence A. Boland

in Equilibrium Models in Economics: Purposes and Critical Limitations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190274320
eISBN:
9780190274368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274320.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter reconsiders the two contrary views of knowledge and hence of learning that was discussed in Chapter 6. One is the quantity-based view, which plays a role whenever model builders appeal ... More


Voting: An Individual and Reasoned Choice

Delia Baldassarri

in The Simple Art of Voting: The Cognitive Shortcuts of Italian Voters

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199828241
eISBN:
9780199979783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199828241.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

Chapter 1 draws a profile of the voter as decision maker, the protagonist of a choice. Voting is argued to be a nonrandom yet notdetermined, individual, and reasoned choice. The chapter confronts the ... More


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