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Respiration in wetland ecosystems

Charlotte L. Roehm

in Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527084
eISBN:
9780191713347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527084.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge of respiration and emissions of carbon from freshwater wetlands to the atmosphere. Data are drawn from an array of studies addressing carbon ... More


ATMOSPHERIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The physical and chemical processes that determine atmospheric composition are examined. The continuity equation for the vertical distribution of molecular species is developed, including molecular ... More


Given Enough Time …

Toby Tyrrell

in On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691121581
eISBN:
9781400847914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691121581.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter examines James Lovelock's assertion that the Earth's atmosphere is a biological construct that is distinctly different from any expected abiotic chemical equilibrium. This claim can be ... More


Titan, Moons, and Small Planets

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter examines the hydrologic cycle on Saturn's moon Titan, which has an atmosphere of nitrogen and methane. Titan is an evolving atmosphere, close to the lower size limit of objects that can ... More


Structure and bonding in simple compounds of the Group 14 elements

Arne Haaland

in Molecules and Models: The molecular structures of main group element compounds

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235353
eISBN:
9780191715594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235353.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The Group 14 elements from C to Pb form di- and tetra-halides. Monomeric dihalides are angular in the gas phase, monomeric tetrahalides have tetrahedral symmetry. The bonding in the tetrachlorides is ... More


Inclusion complexes formed by versatile hosts

Frank H. Herbstein

in Crystalline Molecular Complexes and Compounds: Structures and Principles

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526605
eISBN:
9780191712142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526605.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Versatility in a host can be achieved in different ways, all leading to the capability of a single host species to form a variety of inclusion complexes. A small number of examples has been chosen ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


Digging in the Noise

David A. Weintraub

in Life on Mars: What to Know Before We Go

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780691209258
eISBN:
9780691209265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691209258.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter highlights the emergence of the Martian methane saga from its hibernation in 1988 when Vladimir Krasnopolsky and his colleagues undertook a study of the Martian atmosphere. It explains ... More


Astrobiology

Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Tranter Martyn, and Hodson Andrew J.

in The Ecology of Snow and Ice Environments

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199583072
eISBN:
9780191774669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583072.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Organisms that live with ice are extremophiles, and are viewed as analogues for potential life on other planets and their moons in our solar system. Extraterrestrial cryospheric environments are ... More


Subsistence Emissions and Luxury Emissions

Henry Shue

in Climate Ethics: Essential Readings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195399622
eISBN:
9780197562840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195399622.003.0021
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmentalist Thought and Ideology

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in Rio de Janeiro at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992 establishes no dates and no ... More


Soil-Atmosphere Gas Exchange

Steven K. Schmidt, Ann E. West, Paul D. Brooks, Lesley K. Smith, Charles H. Jaeger, Melany C. Fisk, and Elisabeth A. Holland

in Structure and Function of an Alpine Ecosystem: Niwot Ridge, Colorado

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117288
eISBN:
9780197561171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117288.003.0020
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The alpine, while not extensive in global area, has several advantages for trace gas research, particularly the spatial landscape heterogeneity in soil types and plant communities. This variation ... More


Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism

Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain

in India in a Warming World: Integrating Climate Change and Development

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780199498734
eISBN:
9780199098408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199498734.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Indian Politics

This article, a reprint of a seminal 1991 paper, argues that developing countries like India were being burdened unfairly with the responsibility of addressing climate change. The authors discuss how ... More


Molecular Beauty

Roald Hoffmann

in Roald Hoffmann on the Philosophy, Art, and Science of Chemistry

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199755905
eISBN:
9780197563069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199755905.003.0027
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

My wife and I were on our way to Columbus, Ohio. After I settled on the airplane, I took out a manuscript I was working on—typical for the peripatetic obsessive chemist. Eva glanced over and asked, ... More


Natural Gas: A Nonrenewable Energy Type

Paul F. Meier

in The Changing Energy Mix: A Systematic Comparison of Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190098391
eISBN:
9780190098421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098391.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Sustainability

Natural gas, which is primarily methane, is used in the electric power industry, various industrial applications, residential heating, and, to a small extent, as a transportation fuel. In terms of ... More


Cryosphere

Kenneth M. Hinkel, Andrew W. Ellis, and Ellen Mosley-Thompson

in Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233923
eISBN:
9780191917707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233923.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Regional Geography

The cryosphere refers to the Earth’s frozen realm. As such, it includes the 10 percent of the terrestrial surface covered by ice sheets and glaciers, an additional 14 percent characterized by ... More


Triple Wins?: The Rise and Fall of Biofuels and Fracking

Kate J. Neville

in Fueling Resistance: The Contentious Political Economy of Biofuels and Fracking

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780197535585
eISBN:
9780197535615
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197535585.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter examines global energy politics, tracing the uneven rise and fall of enthusiasm for biofuels and for fracking. With a focus on the major players for each energy technology (Brazil, the ... More


The Biology of Peatlands

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199602995
eISBN:
9780191810138
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199602995.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been revised and updated, ... More


Transportation: Fuel Energies

Peter Rez

in The Simple Physics of Energy Use

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198802297
eISBN:
9780191840708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802297.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Transportation efficiency can be measured in terms of the energy needed to move a person or a tonne of freight over a given distance. For passengers, journey time is important, so an equally useful ... More


The natural capital of offshore oil, gas, and methane hydrates in the World Ocean

Angelo F. Bernardino, Erik E. Cordes, and Thomas A. Schlacher

in Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198841654
eISBN:
9780191877117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841654.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Over half of the global energy consumption is based on fossil fuels that are now mainly extracted from ocean depths below 150 m. These hydrocarbon reserves are thus a significant natural capital from ... More


Methane Cycling and Climate

Han Dolman

in Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The chapter describes the mechanisms by which methane is produced in anaerobic environments. Various methane sources and sinks, both natural (e.g. wetlands) and anthropogenic (e.g. landfills, ... More


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