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Conclusion

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter presents a synthesis of the discussions in the preceding chapters. It shows that the norm against mercenary use has explained four different puzzles in international history. First, ... More


Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Sarah Percy

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The main aim of this book is to argue that the use of private force by states has been restricted by a norm against mercenary use. It traces the evolution of this norm, from mercenaries in medieval ... More


Introduction

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the norm against mercenary use. It then discusses existing literature on mercenaries. It argues that the anti-mercenary norm has restricted state ... More


The Origins of the Norm against Mercenary Use, 1100–1600

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the early origins of the norm against mercenary through three major cases of mercenary use, broadly covering the period that runs from the 12th century through to the 16th ... More


Norms, Their Influence, and How They Can Be Studied

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter sets out the theoretical framework of the book. It adopts a constructivist approach, which explains how norms influence behaviour and how their impact can be studied. The first section ... More


The Definition of a Mercenary and the Definition of the Proscriptive Norm

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter defines the term ‘mercenary’ and identifies the problematic qualities which differentiate mercenaries from other types of fighters. It states that mercenaries do not fight for an ... More


Competing Explanations for the Nineteenth-Century Shift Away from Mercenary Use

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter focuses on the three arguments that seek to explain why states stopped using mercenaries in the 19th century. The first argument is largely realist, making the case that material changes ... More


How Citizens Became the Standard: A Normative Explanation of the Shift Away from Mercenary Use

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the decision in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to adopt a citizen army and stop the long-standing practice of hiring mercenaries from abroad, using four case studies. It ... More


The Norm against Mercenary Use and International Law

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the absence of an effective international regulatory regime for mercenaries. The first section examines the argument, made most forcefully by the international lawyer Antonio ... More


New Model Mercenaries: PMCs, PSCs, and the Anti-Mercenary Norm

Sarah Percy

in Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter demonstrates the continued influence of the norm against mercenary use by examining the development of PMCs and PSCs starting in the mid-1990s. It argues that the shift away from the ... More


Clausewitz and the Privatization of War

Herfried Münkler

in Clausewitz in the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199232024
eISBN:
9780191716133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232024.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The growth of the state in the early modern period was attributable to its monopolization of warfare. In what have been called ‘new wars’, that monopoly has been eroded, but for two different ... More


Not Patriots, Not Farmers, Not Amateurs: Greek Soldiers of Fortune and the Origins of Hoplite Warfare

John R. Hale

in Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691143019
eISBN:
9781400846306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691143019.003.0009
Subject:
History, Ancient History / Archaeology

This chapter argues that neither the leisured class of aristocrats who vied for high social and political status within the polis nor the middling citizen soldiers who defended their farmland ... More


The Habsburg Netherlands, 1549–1567

James D. Tracy

in The Founding of the Dutch Republic: War, Finance, and Politics in Holland, 1572-1588

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199209118
eISBN:
9780191706134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209118.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

In the forty years between 1520 and 1559, the Habsburg and Valois dynasties were at war for twenty years. This struggle for hegemony in Europe entailed not just recurring warfare along the ... More


Holland's Garden

James D. Tracy

in The Founding of the Dutch Republic: War, Finance, and Politics in Holland, 1572-1588

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199209118
eISBN:
9780191706134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209118.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

With Spanish troops now gone, the Lords States could concentrate on “closing off” what they called “Holland's Garden”. This meant subjecting loyalist towns to Orange's authority; Amsterdam, hitherto ... More


Military Institutions and Fiscal Growth

Steven Gunn, David Grummitt, and Hans Cools

in War, State, and Society in England and the Netherlands 1477-1559

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199207503
eISBN:
9780191708848
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207503.003.002
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter analyses the development of military and fiscal institutions in England and the Netherlands. Their armies were composed of different mixtures of noble retinues, militias, garrison and ... More


The Military Resources of the Nobility

Steven Gunn, David Grummitt, and Hans Cools

in War, State, and Society in England and the Netherlands 1477-1559

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199207503
eISBN:
9780191708848
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207503.003.010
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter examines the resources deployed by the nobility in their participation in warfare. In England, their recruitment of troops became less important over time as retinues raised from their ... More


Introduction: Mercenary, Contractor, Volunteer, Slave

Simpson Erik

in Mercenaries in British and American Literature, 1790-1830: Writing, Fighting, and Marrying for Money

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748636440
eISBN:
9780748651603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748636440.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature

This introductory chapter discusses the mercenary, who is described as a foreign fighter. It presents an alternative central point for Atlantic studies on the mercenary and defines mercenary action. ... More


Private Security, Public Order: The Outsourcing of Public Services and Its Limits

Simon Chesterman and Angelina Fisher (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199574124
eISBN:
9780191721816
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574124.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

Private actors are increasingly taking on roles traditionally arrogated to the state. Functions essential to external and internal security and to the satisfaction of basic human needs are routinely ... More


Introduction

Simon Chesterman and Angelina Fisher

in Private Security, Public Order: The Outsourcing of Public Services and Its Limits

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199574124
eISBN:
9780191721816
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574124.003.0099
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

In the past two decades, the responsibilities delegated to private actors — especially but not only in the United States — have grown in depth and breadth. The much-discussed role assumed by ... More


British manpower and the States' Army

Roger B. Manning

in An Apprenticeship in Arms: The Origins of the British Army 1585-1702

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199261499
eISBN:
9780191718625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261499.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Military service was not linked to patriotism in the Dutch Republic, and the Dutch army was a mercenary force consisting mostly of foreigners. The native Dutch soldiers were usually found in ... More


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