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Dogs in historical perspective, and conceptual issues of the study of their behaviour

Ádám Miklósi

in Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199295852
eISBN:
9780191711688
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199295852.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Dogs have always been the focus of human interest about nature. In many cultures they even won the ‘prestigious’ title of being man's best friend, whilst in others dogs did not receive such sympathy ... More


Human Service Organizations: Dead or Alive?

Sandra L. Bloom and Brian Farragher

in Destroying Sanctuary: The Crisis in Human Service Delivery Systems

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195374803
eISBN:
9780199865420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374803.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

Mental models are the largely unconscious ideas and beliefs that structure what we think about–and what we do not consider. Mental models represent mental short-cuts and limitations. This chapter ... More


The mental logic and mental models of indicative conditionals

Jonathan St B T Evans and David E Over

in If

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525134
eISBN:
9780191728174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525134.003.04
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter examines the treatment of conditionals within the psychological theories of mental logic and mental models. It begins with an exposition of what are usually called mental logic theories, ... More


Destroying Sanctuary: The Crisis in Human Service Delivery Systems

Sandra L. Bloom and Brian Farragher

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195374803
eISBN:
9780199865420
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374803.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

This book describes what happens to human service delivery programs under the impact of unrelenting stress and multiple losses. Never perfect places of safety in the first place, many ... More


Intentions, Will, Goal, Consciousness, and Humanness

Torben Grodal

in Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Film Genres, Feelings, and Cognition

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198159834
eISBN:
9780191673719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198159834.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This chapter first describes the way in which some phenomena, such as flexibility, intentionality, free will, and empathy, play an important role in the understanding of what humanness is, and also ... More


Looking Both Ways: The JANUS Model of Noun Phrase Anaphor Processing

Alan Garnham and H. Wind Cowles

in Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331639
eISBN:
9780199867981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331639.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter presents a new model of coreferential noun phrase anaphora processing, JANUS, within the mental models framework. It summarizes previous research on NP anaphora that is most pertinent to ... More


“My Trust Needs To Be Earned, Or I Don’t Give It”: Youths’ Mental Models of Trust

Margaret Rundle, Carrie James, Katie Davis, Jennifer O. Ryan, John M. Francis, and Howard Gardner

in Restoring Trust in Organizations and Leaders: Enduring Challenges and Emerging Answers

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199756087
eISBN:
9780199949571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756087.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Corporate Governance and Accountability

This chapter explores the “mental models” of trust that youth utilize in assessing the trustworthiness of others and the implications of such mental models for the future of democratic life. Findings ... More


Introduction: January 2010

Sandra L. Bloom and Brian Farragher

in Destroying Sanctuary: The Crisis in Human Service Delivery Systems

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195374803
eISBN:
9780199865420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374803.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

The introduction outlines what will be covered in the chapters to follow, setting the stage for a new conceptual framework for understanding the impact of chronic and toxic stress on human service ... More


Causal thinking

David Lagnado

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

How do people acquire and use causal knowledge? This chapter argues that causal learning and reasoning are intertwined, and recruit similar representations and inferential procedures. In contrast to ... More


Bridging between brain science and educational practice with design patterns

Michael W. Connell, Zachary Stein, and Howard Gardner

in Neuroscience in Education: The good, the bad, and the ugly

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199600496
eISBN:
9780191739187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600496.003.0081
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Behavioral Neuroscience

The current ‘neuroscience and education’ dialogue seems to centre largely on the question of how (or whether) neuroscience research can inform mainstream educational practice. Building on Dewey's ... More


Back to the Age of Reason

Keith Stenning

in Seeing Reason: Image and Language in Learning to Think

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198507741
eISBN:
9780191687211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507741.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The generality of the results of the Hyperproof study in the previous chapter is tested in this chapter. This chapter reports the results of tests on findings after a study conducted on a microcosm ... More


Towards a reconciliation of mental model theory and probabilistic theories of conditionals

Sonja M. Geiger and Klaus Oberauer

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter proposes a reconciliation of logical and probabilistic processes using theories with a longer psychological pedigree. In a detailed review of the recent empirical literature on ... More


Conditional inference and constraint satisfaction: Reconciling mental models and the probabilistic approach

Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter takes the first tentative steps towards an algorithmic level account of the probabilistic approach and demonstrates its face-validity by comparing it to a variety of data on conditional ... More


A Pragmatic Analysis of the Role of Management Systems in Organizational Learning

Philippe Lorino

in Knowledge Management and Organizational Competence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199259281
eISBN:
9780191714306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259281.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Knowledge Management

This chapter presents a pragmatic analysis of the role of management and control systems in organizational learning based on the case of a French computer company. The analysis starts with two ... More


Nonverbal Representation of Quantity

Kelly S. Mix, Janellen Huttenlocher, and Susan Cohen Levine

in Quantitative Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195123005
eISBN:
9780199893959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195123005.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Various models have been posited to explain how infants and children represent quantity nonverbally (i.e. without conventional counting, including the accumulator, object files, and mental models). ... More


Associative Networks, Focus of Attention, and Analogue Communication

Torben Grodal

in Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Film Genres, Feelings, and Cognition

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198159834
eISBN:
9780191673719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198159834.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This chapter demonstrates the means by which visual communication relies on attention hierarchies structured as associative networks. It discusses the ways in which central mental models rely on ... More


Probabilistic Mental Models

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The cognitive bias research claims that people are naturally prone to making mistakes in reasoning and memory, including the mistake of over-estimating their knowledge. This chapter proposes a new ... More


The Anti‐Realist Alternative

John Campbell

in Reference and Consciousness

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243815
eISBN:
9780191597145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243816.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Michael Dummett argued that rather than thinking in terms of a sign's having a reference with which the use of the sign must keep faith, the use of the sign is subject to a constraint of ‘harmony’: ... More


Only Connections

Philip N. Johnson-Laird

in How We Reason

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199551330
eISBN:
9780191701580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551330.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses how humans make deductions that depend only on logical connections between propositions. It's a puzzle that psychologists have been investigating for forty years, and this ... More


Semantic memory retrieval, mental models, and the development of conditional inferences in children

Henry Markovits

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a multinomial process tree model for conditional reasoning, based on Markovits and Barrouillet's (2002) developmental theory of conditional reasoning. This model assumes that ... More


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