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Hawthorne effects

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1991 commentary on the so-called Hawthorne Effect in clinical trials. The Hawthorne Effect refers to the effect (usually positive or beneficial) of being under study on the ... More


To Generate and Transform: Strategies for Postpartum Health

Yi-Li Wu

in Reproducing Women: Medicine, Metaphor, and Childbirth in Late Imperial China

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520260689
eISBN:
9780520947610
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520260689.003.0007
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter discusses the case of Ms Wei who died because of an incorrect diagnostic procedure. After giving birth in 1831, Ms. Wei fell ill and was diagnosed as suffering from internal stagnation ... More


Halting Steps: Early Work on Patient Safety

Robert L. Wears and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe

in Still Not Safe: Patient Safety and the Middle-Managing of American Medicine

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780190271268
eISBN:
9780190271299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190271268.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Early studies of medical harm appeared in the 1950s, with rates of injury little different from those reported 50 years later. Philosopher Ivan Illich criticized medicalization of everyday life, ... More


Politics of Healing

John S. Haller

in Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169042
eISBN:
9780231537704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the political pressures that led to the creation of the Office for the Study of Unconventional Medical Practices. The exponential growth for medical costs starting in the 1970s ... More


Informed consent in medical research – a procedure stretched beyond breaking point?

Søren Holm and Søren Madsen

in The Limits of Consent: A socio-ethical approach to human subject research in medicine

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231461
eISBN:
9780191723858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231461.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the question of whether the institutionalized and formalized practice of informed consent in the context of clinical research has been stretched beyond breaking point. It ... More


“A-Bomb Disease”

Robert Jay Lifton

in Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807843444
eISBN:
9781469602363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807882894_lifton.8
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter presents the relationship observed between physical fears and early radiation effects, and how they could turn into lifetime bodily concerns. During the years that followed, these fears ... More


‘Raving of dead men’s dust and beating hearts’: Tennyson and the Pathological Heart

Kirstie Blair

in Victorian Poetry and the Culture of the Heart

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199273942
eISBN:
9780191706592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273942.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter examines Tennyson's poetics in detail, arguing that they constitute the most important intervention in the poetic culture of the heart. It shows how Hallam's death from a heart-related ... More


Doctors and Surgeons

Ariel Toaff

in Love, Work and Death: Jewish Life in Medieval Umbria

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9781874774198
eISBN:
9781800340954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781874774198.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter focuses on Jewish doctors and surgeons in Umbrian communes in the late Middle Ages. Public records, notarial deeds, and contracts in Hebrew and Latin all bear witness to the presence and ... More


IOM and Public Disclosure of the Error Problem—To Err Is Human

Michael J. Saks and Stephan Landsman

in Closing Death's Door: Legal Innovations to End the Epidemic of Healthcare Harm

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780190667986
eISBN:
9780197519974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190667986.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

“IOM and Public Disclosure of the Error Problem—To Err Is Human,” considers the steps that led the Institute of Medicine (renamed the National Academy of Medicine) in 1999 to publicly declare that ... More


“I Am Branded with Infidelity, and See That Open-Eyed”

Thomas Söderqvist

in Science as Autobiography: The Troubled Life of Niels Jern

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300094411
eISBN:
9780300128710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300094411.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter discusses how Niels Jerne continued his combination of medical studies and statistical musings after a week's vacation with Tjek and the children in Lokken in the summer of 1943. The ... More


After the Subject: Towards a Real Reform

Pete Bennett

in Doing Text: Media After the Subject

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9781911325031
eISBN:
9781800342576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781911325031.003.0010
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter looks at the design principles of the reforms of GCSE and A level, which have sought to reduce the number of subjects offered by outlawing 'overlap' between subjects, in other words the ... More


Understanding and Using Statistics

Lewis Cope

in A Field Guide for Science Writers

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195174991
eISBN:
9780197562239
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195174991.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

A doctor reports a “promising” new treatment. Is the claim believable, or is it based on biased or other questionable data? An environmentalist says a waste dump causes cancer, but an industrialist ... More


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