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OBJECTIVE BAYESIANISM

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Objective Bayesianism imposes two norms on degrees of belief: degrees of belief should be constrained by empirical information and they should otherwise be as equivocal as possible. The origins of ... More


An introduction to maximum entropy

Peter Main

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Maximum entropy methods are used in crystallography for estimating reflection phases among other applications. This chapter explains the basic concepts behind maximum entropy, including entropy ... More


Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems: Complexity and Statistical Fluctuations. A Maximum Entropy Viewpoint

Pier A. Mello and Narendra Kumar

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525820
eISBN:
9780191712234
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525820.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book presents a statistical theory of complex wave scattering and quantum transport in a class of physical systems of current interest having chaotic classical dynamics (e.g., microwave cavities ... More


INTRODUCTION

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter describes the central claims of the book. From a philosophical point of view, the book argues for an objective Bayesian interpretation of probability and an epistemic interpretation of ... More


THE MAXIMUM-ENTROPY APPROACH: AN INFORMATION-THEORETIC VIEWPOINT

Pier A. Mello and Narendra Kumar

in Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems: Complexity and Statistical Fluctuations. A Maximum Entropy Viewpoint

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525820
eISBN:
9780191712234
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525820.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter motivates and discusses the basic idea of information-theoretic entropy, i.e., the Shannon entropy, and the maximum-entropy approach (MEA) based on it. The concepts of the prior and of ... More


Statistical Mechanics and Information Theory for Complex Systems

Stefan Thurner, Rudolf Hanel, and Peter Klimekl

in Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198821939
eISBN:
9780191861062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198821939.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Most complex systems are statistical systems. Statsitical mechanics and information theory usually do not apply to complex systems because the latter break the assumptions of ergodicity, ... More


LANGUAGE CHANGE

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0012
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter discusses the situation in which an agent's language or domain may change. It is argued — against a principle of language invariance — that language contains implicit knowledge and so ... More


Incommensurate Crystallography

Sander van Smaalen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570820
eISBN:
9780191718762
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570820.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Aperiodic crystals are crystalline materials with atomic structures that lack translational symmetry. This book gives a comprehensive account of the superspace theory for the description of the ... More


Updating

Jon Williamson

in In Defence of Objective Bayesianism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199228003
eISBN:
9780191711060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228003.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

The goal of this chapter is to respond to a criticism of objective Bayesianism that concerns the updating of degrees of belief. Objective Bayesianism has often been dismissed on account of ... More


Energy flow

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The second law of thermodynamics is central to understanding ecology, although it is ignored by most ecology text books. It follows from the second law that all organisms must draw free energy from ... More


Why making Bayesian networks objectively Bayesian makes sense

Dawn E. Holmes

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0028
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

It is well‐known that Bayesian networks are so‐called because of their use of Bayes theorem for probabilistic inference. However, since Bayesian networks commonly use frequentist probabilities ... More


ELECTRON DENSITY IN SUPERSPACE

Sander Van Smaalen

in Incommensurate Crystallography

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570820
eISBN:
9780191718762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570820.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter considers the properties of the generalized electron density as it can be displayed in superspace. Fourier maps and difference Fourier maps allow the visual inspection of various ... More


Entropy

Robert Alicki and Mark Fannes

in Quantum Dynamical Systems

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198504009
eISBN:
9780191708503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504009.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter begins with the discussion of various meanings of the entropy: Boltzmann entropy, Shannon entropy, von Neumann entropy. It then presents the basic properties of the von Neumann entropy ... More


Entropy Maximization

Amos Golan

in Foundations of Info-Metrics: Modeling, Inference, and Imperfect Information

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199349524
eISBN:
9780199349555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199349524.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

In this chapter I develop the essential maximum entropy procedure, which is an inversion procedure for inferring an unknown probability distribution function from incomplete information. The ... More


The Probability Connection

T. Grandy Walter

in Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents a brief introduction to probability as logic. The principle of maximum entropy is then developed as an algorithm of probability theory for the construction of prior ... More


Maximum Entropy and Ecology: A Theory of Abundance, Distribution, and Energetics

John Harte

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199593415
eISBN:
9780191774614
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593415.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

A goal of every science is comprehensive theory that is predictive, realistic, and parsimonious. Is such theory possible in ecology? The sheer complexity, historical contingency, and scale-dependence ... More


Patterson methods in powder diffraction: maximum entropy and symmetry minimum function techniques

Michael A. Estermann and William I. F. David

in Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction Data

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199205530
eISBN:
9780191718076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205530.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Starting from a definition of the relationship between a crystal structure and its Patterson function, this chapter considers the role of the Patterson function in the particular context of powder ... More


Constructing the State

Jochen Rau

in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics: An Introduction to Key Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199595068
eISBN:
9780191844300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595068.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The limited data available about a macroscopic system may come in various forms: sharp constraints, expectation values, or control parameters. While these data impose constraints on the state, they ... More


INTRODUCTION

Pier A. Mello and Narendra Kumar

in Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems: Complexity and Statistical Fluctuations. A Maximum Entropy Viewpoint

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525820
eISBN:
9780191712234
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525820.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter introduces the notion of complex scattering of waves, emphasizes the generality of the ideas involved, and explains its relevance to the field of nuclear physics and microwave cavities. ... More


ELECTRONIC TRANSPORT THROUGH QUASI-ONE-DIMENSIONAL DISORDERED SYSTEMS

Pier A. Mello and Narendra Kumar

in Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems: Complexity and Statistical Fluctuations. A Maximum Entropy Viewpoint

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525820
eISBN:
9780191712234
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525820.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter treats the problem of finding the probability distribution of quantities related to quantum transport through a strictly one-dimensional (i.e., 1-channel) and through an N-channel ... More


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