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The Difficulty about Proof beyond Reasonable Doubt

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents an elaboration on the difficulty about proof beyond reasonable doubt. It is more inclined to hold that a particular conclusion falls short of certainty because there is a ... More


Kelvin and Statistical Mechanics

Oliver Penrose

in Kelvin: Life, Labours and Legacy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231256
eISBN:
9780191710803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231256.003.0015
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Kelvin played a big part in the development of statistical mechanics, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium. This chapter reviews these developments, taking a particular interest in Kelvin's own ... More


The Difficulty about Corroboration and Convergence

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the difficulty about corroboration and convergence. It begins by addressing the common structure of testimonial corroboration and circumstantial convergence. The chapter also ... More


The Difficulty about Conjunction

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

In most civil cases, the plaintiff's contention consists of several component elements. So the multiplication law for the mathematical probability of a conjunction entails that, if the contention as ... More


The Logical Syntax of Inductive Probability-gradings

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter elucidates the logical syntax of inductive probability-gradings. It first presents some logical similarities between inductive and mathematical probability. The inductive ... More


Languages and Relativity

Jon Williamson

in In Defence of Objective Bayesianism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199228003
eISBN:
9780191711060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228003.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Having developed objective Bayesianism on propositional and predicate languages, this chapter turns, in §9.1, to a richer language, the language of the mathematical theory of probability. We see that ... More


What are the Standards of Proof in Courts of Law?

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter describes the standard of proof in courts of law. There are two main standards for proof of fact in English and American courts. The plaintiff in a civil case must prove on the balance ... More


The Incommensurability of Inductive Support and Mathematical Probability

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides an elaboration on the incommensurability of inductive support and mathematical probability. It begins by presenting the argument from the possibility of anomalies. If inductive ... More


Criteria of Rational Belief

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins by providing the problem of the detachment conditions for dyadic judgements of probability. The study of criteria for rational belief is very largely the study of the detachment ... More


Objective Probabilities

John L. Pollock

in Thinking about Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195304817
eISBN:
9780199850907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304817.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter aims at making sense of objective probability and rebutting the arguments that led, historically, to its falling into disrepute. Philosophers often fail to realize that there are a ... More


The Difficulty about Negation

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter investigates the difficulty about negation. Because of the principle that pM[S] = I − pM[not-S], the mathematicist analysis implies that in civil cases the Anglo-American system is ... More


The Origins of Risk and the Growth of Insurance

Rachel Z. Friedman

in Probable Justice: Risk, Insurance, and the Welfare State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226730769
eISBN:
9780226731094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731094.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter traces the early history of insurance and mathematical probability, laying the foundations for the argument that social insurance inherited a duality from the concept of risk. This ... More


The Difficulty about a Criterion

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the difficulty about a criterion. It first introduces the inapplicability of Carnapian criteria. No familiar criterion of mathematical probability is applicable to the ... More


The Errors of Art and Nature

Theodore M. Porter

in The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780691208428
eISBN:
9780691210520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691208428.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter analyzes the law of facility of errors. All the early applications of the error law could be understood in terms of a binomial converging to an exponential, as in Abrahan De Moivre's ... More


Statistical Law and Human Freedom

Theodore M. Porter

in The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780691208428
eISBN:
9780691210520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691208428.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter evaluates the criticism of statistics. Already in the early nineteenth century, the statistical approach was attacked on the ground that mere statistical tables cannot demonstrate ... More


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