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Maternal and Infant Mortality

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0029
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the relationship between maternal and infant mortality. Case histories of major obstetric complications leading directly to the death of both mother and child suggest that the ... More


Maternal Mortality in the USA

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0023
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the maternal mortality rate in the US. During the period discussed in this chapter, medical care was dominated by the belief in the virtues of competitive free enterprise ... More


Safe Mothers, Healthy Babies: Reproductive Health in the Twentieth Century

Milton Kotelchuck

in Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150698
eISBN:
9780199865185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150698.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The decline of infant and maternal mortality represents one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century. From 1900 through 2000, infant mortality in the United States declined ... More


Maternal Mortality in Britain from 1850 to the Mid-1930s

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0015
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the trends, causes, and determinants of maternal mortality in Great Britain from 1850 to the mid-1930s. The most notable feature of this period is the exceptional peak of ... More


Maternal Mortality as an Indicator of the Standard of Living in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Slavonia

Eugene A. Hammel and Aaron Gullickson

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This study of maternal mortality on the Croatian-Bosnian border in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries shows that the chance of death in childbirth was sensitive to major changes in the social ... More


Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality in Selected European Countries

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0027
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the levels and trends in maternal care and mortality in certain European countries. It suggests that maternal mortality rates in certain European countries, particularly in ... More


Problems of Measuring Maternal Mortality

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the problems in accurately determining maternal mortality rate. Ideally, pregnancies should be used as the denominator in the calculation of maternal mortality rate, but since ... More


Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Irvine Loudon

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.001.0001
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book studies maternal care and maternal mortality. Over the last two hundred years different countries developed quite different systems of maternal care. This book is an analysis, firmly ... More


Australia and New Zealand

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0028
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter compares maternal mortality in Australia and New Zealand. In the 1920s, about 700 mothers died annually from maternal causes. The distribution of maternal deaths by cause is similar to ... More


Maternal Mortality and Severe Maternal Morbidity

K.S. Joseph

in Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195387902
eISBN:
9780199895328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387902.003.0054
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity have received increasing attention in both industrialized and less industrialized countries in recent years. The definition of maternal death and its ... More


Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment for Pregnant Mothers and Their Children

Hoosen M Coovadia and Marie-Louise Newell

in Protecting Childhood in the AIDS Pandemic: Finding Solutions that Work

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199765126
eISBN:
9780199918942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199765126.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the unique HIV/AIDS transmission patterns, progression of disease, and treatment constraints in young children that require prevention and treatment options tailored to this ... More


The Determinants of Maternal Mortality

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0004
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses issues concerning the determinants of maternal mortality. It distinguishes between the immediate or direct causes of death and the causes of mortality levels within the ... More


Maternal Mortality and Human Rights: From Theory to Practice

Judith Bueno de Mesquita

in Law and Global Health: Current Legal Issues Volume 16

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199688999
eISBN:
9780191768118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688999.003.0015
Subject:
Law, Medical Law

This chapter first discusses the evolution of maternal mortality from a development concern into a major human rights issue. Key developments precipitating the rise of maternal mortality towards the ... More


Making Pregnancy Safer for Women around the World: The Example of Safe Motherhood and Maternal Death in Guatemala

Nicole S. Berry

in Anthropology and Public Health: Bridging Differences in Culture and Society

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195374643
eISBN:
9780199865390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374643.003.0016
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Maternal mortality has become one of the most important topics in global health, as evidenced by its inclusion in the eight Millennium Development Goals designated by the United Nations. This chapter ... More


European Lying-in Hospitals and Obstetricians

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0026
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the lying-in or maternity hospitals and the obstetricians in Europe. Though there was more childbirth in lying-in hospitals in Europe compared to Great Britain and the U.S., ... More


Other Causes of Maternal Mortality

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0009
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses several causes of maternal mortality. These include contracted pelvis and rickets, and puerperal insanity or puerperal mania. Childhood rickets leads to a deformity of the ... More


Maternal Mortality in Pre-Registration England

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0011
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines maternal mortality in pre-registration England, or the period covering 1800 to 1950. Data gathered from the London Bills of Mortality and parish registers suggests that there ... More


Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality in Britain, 1935–1950

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0016
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines maternal care and maternal mortality in Great Britain during the period from 1935 to 1950. During this period, the maternal mortality rate fell so steeply that the 1950 rate was ... More


The Measurement of Maternal Mortality

Irvine Loudon

in Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800-1950

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198229971
eISBN:
9780191678950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198229971.003.0002
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explains the measurement of maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is defined in terms of the maternal deaths per 1,000, 10,000 or 100,000 births. It can be measured either by simply ... More


Puerperal Fever in the Early Twentieth Century

Irvine Loudon

in The Tragedy of Childbed Fever

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204992
eISBN:
9780191676444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204992.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the reduction in puerperal fever mortality in Great Britain during the 20th century. The improvement in the prevention and treatment of the disease is attributed to the ... More


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