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Introduction: I: Origins, Prevention, Reconciliation

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter sets out the purpose of the book, which is to examine the central principles of or primary influences leading to intense violence between groups, with attention to variations in them in ... More


Instigating Conditions: Starting Points of Mass Violence

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the starting points of mass violence. The starting points, or initial instigators, of intense group violence are usually either difficult life conditions in a society—economic ... More


Learning by Doing in Individuals and Groups: The Evolution of Extreme Violence

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter traces the evolution of extreme violence by individuals and groups. People “learn by doing”, and they change as a result of what they do. Individuals and the whole group change as they ... More


Cultural/Societal Characteristics That Make Hostility and Violence More Likely

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter identifies the cultural and societal characteristics that can increase the likelihood of mass violence. One of these is a history of devaluation of and discrimination against a group. ... More


Introduction: II: Early and Late Prevention, the Costs of Violence, Evil and Goodness

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the early and late prevention of mass violence, the concepts of evil and goodness, and the knowledge base for this book. It also describes the elements of the report by a ... More


Introduction

Geoffrey B. Robinson

in The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691196497
eISBN:
9781400888863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196497.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

This introductory chapter provides some insights into the violence of 1965–66 against members of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and builds on the rich body of existing work by Indonesian ... More


The Roots and Prevention of Genocide and Related Mass Violence

Ervin Staub

in The Slippery Slope to Genocide: Reducing Identity Conflicts and Preventing Mass Murder

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199791743
eISBN:
9780199919222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199791743.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter describes influences leading to genocide (and other mass violence). These influences include economic deterioration, political chaos, great social changes, and conflict, usually between ... More


Internal and External Bystanders: Their Passivity, Complicity, and Role in the Evolution of Violence

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the role of internal and external bystanders in the evolution of mass violence. In the face of escalating violence, witnesses or bystanders usually remain passive, due to past ... More


Introduction and Late Prevention

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the prevention of group violence. Prevention usually happens in response to already intense violence against a group. But ideally prevention of group violence will start early, ... More


Psychological and Societal/Group Processes That Arise from Instigating Conditions

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the group processes arising from difficult life conditions. Groups and their members tend to respond to difficult life conditions and group conflict by fulfilling basic needs ... More


Perpetration and the Perpetrators

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the societal conditions and life experiences that may turn individuals into perpetrators of violence. Several factors appear to motivate perpetrators, including attitudes ... More


Only the Men Will Do: A Bioarchaeological Exploration of Gender in an Andean Mass Death Assemblage

J. Marla Toyne

in Massacres: Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology Approaches

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781683400691
eISBN:
9781683400813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9781683400691.003.0004
Subject:
Archaeology, Methodology and Techniques

Chapter 4 applies a gendered approach to studying mass violence among the Chachapoya in Peru. While the results of this analysis of the mass death assemblage at Kuelap demonstrates that both adults ... More


Recommendations and Conclusions

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter summarizes actions to take in the primary cases in this book. It then discusses what is required to create a harmonious world with less, little, perhaps someday no mass violence. It also ... More


Understanding the Woundedness/Psychological Transformation of All Parties in Mass Violence

Ervin Staub

in Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195382044
eISBN:
9780199864942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382044.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses the harmful psychological consequences of conflict and violence, including changes in the nature of identity and self-concept (both individual and group) of many members of all ... More


The Afterlives of the Terror: Facing the Legacies of Mass Violence in Postrevolutionary France

Ronen Steinberg

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781501739248
eISBN:
9781501739255
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501739248.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This book examines how those who lived through the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution struggled to come to terms with it. It shows that, contrary to claims that are made often in the ... More


Assimilation: The Conversion and Forced Marriage of Christian Children

Taner Akçam

in The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691153339
eISBN:
9781400841844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691153339.003.0009
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter contends that there are two reasons why the concept of assimilation was detached from the study of genocide. First, Armenian Genocide studies have suffered from the general weaknesses of ... More


After the Massacre: Commemoration and Consolation in Ha My and My Lai

Heonik Kwon

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520247963
eISBN:
9780520939653
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247963.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Asian Cultural Anthropology

Though a generation has passed since the massacre of civilians at My Lai, the legacy of this tragedy continues to reverberate throughout Vietnam and the rest of the world. This engrossing study ... More


Massacres: Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology Approaches

Cheryl P. Anderson and Debra L. Martin (eds)

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781683400691
eISBN:
9781683400813
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9781683400691.001.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Methodology and Techniques

Bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology offer unique perspectives on studies of mass violence and present opportunities to interpret human skeletal remains in a broader cultural context. Massacres ... More


Decoding International Law: Semiotics and the Humanities

Susan Tiefenbrun

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195385779
eISBN:
9780199776061
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385779.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Violations of international law and human rights laws are the plague of the 20th and 21st centuries. People's inhumanity to people escalates as wars proliferate and respect for human rights and the ... More


Preconditions

Geoffrey B. Robinson

in The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691196497
eISBN:
9781400888863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196497.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter offers a different perspective from mainstream scholarship regarding the mass violence of 1965–66. It emphasizes the historical forces, actors, and contingencies that were most important ... More


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