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Pleistocene Warming and Extinctions

Eric Post

in Ecology of Climate Change: The Importance of Biotic Interactions

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148472
eISBN:
9781400846139
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148472.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores the dynamics of plant and animal species and species assemblages during the Earth's most recent period of rapid warming to garner insights into the potential consequences of ... More


The extinction vortex, is genetic variation related to extinction?

Jacob Höglund

in Evolutionary Conservation Genetics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199214211
eISBN:
9780191706660
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214211.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter begins with a brief introduction to the focus of this book, which is the idea that extinction of species is somehow related to loss of genetic variation. Theoretical considerations ... More


The Dynamics of Mass Extinctions

David Sepkoski

in Rereading the Fossil Record: The Growth of Paleobiology as an Evolutionary Discipline

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226748559
eISBN:
9780226748580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226748580.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology: Biology

This chapter focuses on the dynamics of mass extinction. The study of extinction helps the paleobiologists in rereading the fossil record. However, many of them during this time expressed frustration ... More


Dinosaur Extinction

J. David Archibald and David E. Fastovsky

in The Dinosauria

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520242098
eISBN:
9780520941434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520242098.003.0033
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The disappearance of nonavian dinosaurs is only a small part of a greater class of extinctions known as “mass extinctions.” Mass extinctions are global events characterized by unusually high rates of ... More


Historical contingency and the development of planetary ecosystems

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The ecology of a planet is influenced by historical processes. At any stage in its development, the current conditions of life on a planet form the starting point from which new conditions develop. ... More


Extinction in the Shadow of the Bomb

David Sepkoski

in Catastrophic Thinking: Extinction and the Value of Diversity from Darwin to the Anthropocene

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226348612
eISBN:
9780226354613
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226354613.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Continuing the theme of pessimistic extinction imaginaries, this chapter brings the story to the aftermath of World War II and the Cold War. Catastrophic events like the Holocaust and the bombing of ... More


The Stability of Ecological Communities as an Agent of Evolutionary Selection: Evidence from the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction

Peter D. Roopnarine and Kenneth D. Angielczyk

in Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226426051
eISBN:
9780226426198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426198.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A series of six terrestrial communities spanning the Middle Permian to the M. Triassic from the Karoo Basin of South Africa display greater stability, both in terms of transient dynamics and ... More


On Extinction

Frank H. T. Rhodes

in Origins: The Search for Our Prehistoric Past

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781501702440
eISBN:
9781501706233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501702440.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

This chapter discusses extinction—its causes, the challenges it poses, and the implications it leaves for studies into the history of life. Any history of life, after all, inevitably stresses first ... More


The Sixth Mass Extinction Is Caused by Us

Jeremy Bendik-Keymer

in Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262017534
eISBN:
9780262301541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017534.003.0014
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

Climate change is a main driver of extinction, with climate-related species loss of 20 percent and upward estimated under current global warming forecasts for this century. This chapter explains what ... More


Lessons from the fossil record: the Ediacaran radiation, the Cambrian radiation, and the end-Permian mass extinction

Stephen Q. Dornbos, Matthew E. Clapham, Margaret L. Fraiser, and Marc Laflamme

in Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Frameworks, methodologies, and integration

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642250
eISBN:
9780191774768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642250.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Due to its extensive deep-time history encompassing almost 600 million years, the fossil record offers important insights into changing biodiversity in marine ecosystems, inluding rapid ... More


Out with a Bang

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0028
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter examines how the impact skeptics reacted to Luis Alvarez's theory that the mass extinctions of the dinosaurs and seventy percent of all species on the planet at the Cretaceous-Tertiary ... More


Rolls of the dice

Tim Lenton and Andrew Watson

in Revolutions that made the Earth

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199587049
eISBN:
9780191775031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587049.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter illustrates the fundamentally random, stochastic nature of the evolutionary process that has produced us and everything else alive today. In the language of Stephen Jay Gould, the dice ... More


“Towards a Nomothetic Paleontology”: The MBL Model and Stochastic Paleontology

David Sepkoski

in Rereading the Fossil Record: The Growth of Paleobiology as an Evolutionary Discipline

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226748559
eISBN:
9780226748580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226748580.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology: Biology

The study and modeling of the history of diversity over time motivated a methodological question: how reliable is the fossil record, and how can that reliability be tested? These problems became the ... More


Skeletons and Ocean Chemistry: The Long View

Andrew H. Knoll and Woodward W. Fischer

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

In present-day seas, animals, algae, and protozoa are threatened by ocean acidification, amplified in many regions by seawater warming and hypoxia (Doney et al . 2009 ). Many species may be ... More


Chimpanzee Culture Wars: Rethinking Human Nature alongside Japanese, European, and American Cultural Primatologists

Nicolas Langlitz

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691204284
eISBN:
9780691204260
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691204284.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

In the 1950s, Japanese zoologists took note when a number of macaques invented and passed on new food-washing behaviors within their troop. The discovery opened the door to a startling question: ... More


Death on a Grand Scale

Gary C. Howard

in The Biology of Death: How Dying Shapes Cells, Organisms, and Populations

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780190687724
eISBN:
9780197601433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190687724.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Dinosaurs dominated the Earth for about 130 million years. About 66 million years ago, they became extinct along with nearly 75 percent of all plant and animal species on Earth. The leading suspect ... More


The last mass extinction (1826–31)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0015
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes what was widely taken to be growing evidence for the reality of a geologically recent “revolution,” based on how it seemed to have affected the living world. In the middle ... More


Visions of Just Conservation

Anna Wienhues and Anna Wienhues

in Ecological Justice and the Extinction Crisis: Giving Living Beings their Due

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781529208511
eISBN:
9781529208559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529208511.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter evaluates the debate on just conservation that has developed around the so-called Half-Earth proposal. The Half-Earth proposal was put forward most prominently to a non-expert audience ... More


The Impact of Invasive Species on Speciation: Lessons from the Fossil Record

Alycia L. Stigall

in Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226377445
eISBN:
9780226377582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226377582.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology: Biology

Among modern taxa, speciation by geographic isolation is more prevalent than biologically‐based isolation mechanisms, and studies of speciation style among modern species indicate that vicariant ... More


Dinosaur Killer

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0027
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter examines the theory that meteorite impact was responsible for the extinction of dinosaurs on Earth. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, or K-T, is the point in geological time at which the ... More


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