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Equality: Abilities and Marginal Utility

Thomas Hurka

in Perfectionism

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195101164
eISBN:
9780199833276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195101162.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Some versions of perfectionism, e.g., Plato's and Nietzsche's, are antiegalitarian, but this is often because of claims about desert or maximax aggregation, which the best perfectionism rejects. And ... More


The Triumph of Utilitarianism and the Marginalist Revolution

Ernesto Screpanti and Stefano Zamagni

in An Outline of the History of Economic Thought

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199279142
eISBN:
9780191602887
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199279144.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Exposes the basic principles of neoclassical theoretical system and then provides an answer to the question: was the marginalist a real revolution? The specific contributions of Jevons, Menger, and ... More


Economics and efficiency

Jan Abel Olsen

in Principles in Health Economics and Policy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198794837
eISBN:
9780191836329
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198794837.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter, the longest in the book, explains the fundamentals of microeconomics and its application to the analysis of health and healthcare. The concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs lie at ... More


Going Empirical: The Econometric and Experimental Approaches to Utility Measurement of Frisch and Thurstone, 1925–1945

Ivan Moscati

in Measuring Utility: From the Marginal Revolution to Behavioral Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780199372768
eISBN:
9780199372805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199372768.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Chapter 7 discusses two early attempts to measure utility empirically. In 1926, Norwegian Ragnar Frisch applied an econometric approach to measure the marginal utility of money. Following a ... More


Distribution of Resources: Need and Outcome

F. M. Kamm

in Morality, Mortality Volume I: Death and Whom to Save From It

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195119114
eISBN:
9780199872244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195119118.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Begins the discussion of organ distribution for transplantation presented in the last four chapters of Part III of the book by analysing factors that may be relevant in three situations: true ... More


Maladies of the Middle Class

Robert Wuthnow

in Christianity in the Twenty-First Century: Reflections on the Challenges Ahead

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195096514
eISBN:
9780199853380
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195096514.003.0015
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Although a substantial minority of Americans live below the poverty line, and a few enjoy enormous wealth, the vast majority constitute the middle class. It has been the middle class that has shaped ... More


Bukharin as an Economist

Alec Nove

in The Ideas of Nikolai Bukharin

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198278665
eISBN:
9780191684227
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198278665.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter suggests that Bukharin was one of the few Bolsheviks familiar with ‘bourgeois’ economics. It considers The Political Rentier (1914), in which he counterposed the labour theory of value ... More


Utilitarianism and Distribution to the Disabled

Mark S. Stein

in Distributive Justice and Disability: Utilitarianism against Egalitarianism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300100570
eISBN:
9780300128253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300100570.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines the utilitarian approach to disability and distribution in the context of resource allocation. Utilitarianism seeks to maximize welfare and will often approve of measures to ... More


Utility maximization

Clas Eriksson

in Economic Growth and the Environment: An Introduction to the Theory

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199663897
eISBN:
9780191808678
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199663897.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines how the optimal level of pollution varies over time under different assumptions about the utility function (or the abatement function). In particular, it considers what is ... More


Rediscovering Use Value

Christoph Hermann

in The Critique of Commodification: Contours of a Post-Capitalist Society

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780197576755
eISBN:
9780197576793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197576755.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter rediscovers use value as an essential category for understanding commodification and capitalism more generally. The distinction between use value and exchange value goes back to ancient ... More


The Triumph of Utilitarianism and the Marginalist Revolution

Ernesto Screpanti and Stefano Zamagni

in An Outline of the History of Economic Thought

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774556
eISBN:
9780191717383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774559.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Exposes the basic principles of neoclassical theoretical system and then provides an answer to the question: was the marginalist a real revolution? The specific contributions of Jevons, Menger, and ... More


The Certainty Equivalence Model

Tullio Jappelli and Luigi Pistaferri

in The Economics of Consumption: Theory and Evidence

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199383146
eISBN:
9780199383160
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199383146.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The model known as “certainty equivalence” is obtained when the marginal utility of consumption is linear. This approach allows a closed-form solution for consumption even with uncertainty, but the ... More


The Great Classical Tradition, 2: The Mainstream

John Kenneth Galbraith

in Economics in Perspective: A Critical History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171647
eISBN:
9781400889075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171647.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines the classical tradition in economics at the apogee of high capitalism. Throughout the nineteenth century and virtually everywhere in the world, the primary concern of economics ... More


Science of Man

Dana Simmons

in Vital Minimum: Need, Science, and Politics in Modern France

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226251561
eISBN:
9780226251738
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226251738.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter outlines the scientific vision behind Vichy France’s authoritarian welfare state: a hybrid of economic theory and biosociology. A turn to the archive reveals how science and politics ... More


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