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Time Integration Schemes

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on time integration schemes, including fourth-order accurate Runge–Kutta and predictor-corrector schemes as well as schemes that allow larger time steps (and therefore fewer ... More


The Great Oxidation

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0008
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter deals with the “great oxidation event” (GOE), which represents a quantum shift in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. It suggests that the GOE represents the evolution of ... More


The structure and physiology of cephalopod muscle fibres

Q. Bone, E. R. Brown, and M. Usher

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0206
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter describes the structure of cephalopod ‘skeletal’ muscle fibers and radial chromatophore fibers. Almost all muscle fibers in cephalopods are quite different in design to those of ... More


Mollusca

Heinz A. Lowenstam and Stephen Weiner

in On Biomineralization

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195049770
eISBN:
9780197560068
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195049770.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

Mollusks have a well-deserved reputation for being expert mineralizers based only on their much-admired shell-making abilities. Table 6.1 shows that the reputation is ... More


Synthesis and Future Directions

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0031
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Ultramafic rocks come from deep within the earth. Most rocks on the surface of the earth are quite different from them. Unique rocks make unique soils and ... More


The Tectonic Plates are Moving!

Roy Livermore

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198717867
eISBN:
9780191860492
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198717867.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics, History of Physics

Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and ... More


Mountains, Trenches, Sunken Islands: The Great Revolution in Earth Science

Wolf H. Berger

in Ocean: Reflections on a Century of Exploration

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247789
eISBN:
9780520942547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247789.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter explains the concepts of continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, and mantle convection to address the origin of the most striking features of the Earth’s surface. These ... More


Neck lumps

Max Robinson, Keith Hunter, Michael Pemberton, and Philip Sloan

in Soames' & Southam's Oral Pathology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199697786
eISBN:
9780191918483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199697786.003.0014
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Dentistry

Whilst dental healthcare professionals naturally focus on assessment of the teeth and the supporting tissues, they also have an important role in assessing the whole ... More


Understanding Skin Conditions

Steven J. Ersser

in Adult Nursing Practice: Using evidence in care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199697410
eISBN:
9780191918476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199697410.003.0022
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Nursing

The aim of this chapter is to provide nurses with the knowledge to be able to assess, manage, and care for people with skin conditions in an evidence-based ... More


Plate Tectonics Now and in the Past

John J. W. Rogers and M. Santosh

in Continents and Supercontinents

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165890
eISBN:
9780197562147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165890.003.0004
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

The concepts known as plate tectonics that began to develop in the 1960s built on a foundation of information that included: • The earth’s mantle is rigid enough to ... More


From the depths of the Earth

Jan Zalasiewicz

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199569700
eISBN:
9780191918216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199569700.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Historical Geology

The planet Theia had, like the Earth, formed early, from the mass of dust and rock-melt droplets of the accretionary disc. Theia is calculated to have been about the ... More


Animals, Fungi, and Microorganisms

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Although plants are the major living components of terrestrial geoecosystems, other organisms are very important. Some animals move large amounts of soil, ... More


The Reconnecting Magnetosphere

Charles F. Kennel

in Convection and Substorms: Paradigms of Magnetospheric Phenomenology

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195085297
eISBN:
9780197560488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195085297.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

Dungey’s (1961a) pattern of internal magnetospheric convection was similar to that of Axford and Hines (1961). However, his model made testable statements about the ... More


Introduction

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0003
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Ultramafic, or colloquially “serpentine,” rocks and soils have dramatic effects on the vegetation that grows on them. Many plants cannot grow in serpentine soils, ... More


The Monastic Orders: Adjustment and Survival

Joseph Bergin

in Church, Society, and Religious Change in France, 1580-1730

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300150988
eISBN:
9780300161069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300150988.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Religion

This chapter describes the presence of the religious orders within France referred to as “the white mantle of the churches.” The place where many of the greatest religious orders were founded and ... More


Wedding Celebrations

Elisabeth van Houts

in Married Life in the Middle Ages, 900-1300

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198798897
eISBN:
9780191839542
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198798897.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Medieval History, Social History

This chapter discusses the ceremonial aspect of wedding celebrations of elite weddings, lower-status weddings, so-called ‘mantle’ ceremonies, and wedding rings. Actual wedding celebrations often ... More


Continental Drift: Not Even Wrong

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter takes a look at Arthur Holmes's ideas that lent credence to the theory of continental drift, first brought up by Alfred Wegener. Holmes took Wegener's theory, with its many flaws but ... More


Phylum Mollusca

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0027
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

Mollusca is comprised of approximately 200,000 described living species, making it one of the largest animal phyla, and consists of eight living classes that are predominantly marine, with gastropods ... More


Earth, Cradle of Life

John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton

in From Dust to Life: The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175706
eISBN:
9781400885565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175706.003.0011
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter studies the composition of early Earth, which consisted of two layers: a dense iron-rich core at the center, surrounded by a thick rocky mantle. Gradually, Earth acquired a third layer, ... More


The Battles of the Mantles: Ceremonial Gear and Status Conflict

Giora Sternberg

in Status Interaction during the Reign of Louis XIV

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199640348
eISBN:
9780191747779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640348.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter examines the quintessential item of ceremonial dress in pre-modern Europe: mantles. It first considers the signification and significance of the mantles worn for high ceremonies such as ... More


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