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Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Samir Okasha

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the long-standing controversy in evolutionary ... More


Levels of Selection and the Major Evolutionary Transitions

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter looks at the ‘major evolutionary transitions’, in particular the idea that multi-level selection theory is crucial for understanding them. These transitions occur when a number of ... More


Alternative Patterns of Explanation for Major Transitions

Brett Calcott

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter argues that the major transitions literature has been too focused on determining conditions in which there is selection for cooperation, despite the threat of defection. It concentrates ... More


Introduction: A Dynamic View of Evolution

Brett Calcott and Kim Sterelny

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book reviews some of life’s history. It suggests that one crucial feature of John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry’s The Major Transitions in Evolution is that it has a dynamic approach. In The ... More


Neural Transitions

Robert Aunger and Valerie Curtis

in Gaining Control: How human behavior evolved

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780199688951
eISBN:
9780191799334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688951.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter reflects on the history described in Section 2, arguing that the idea of a major biological transition can be applied to the steps in mental evolution described there. It extends the ... More


How Many Levels Are There? How Insights from Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Help Measure the Hierarchical Complexity of Life

Carl Simpson

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter argues that the multilevel selection (MLS)-1 to MLS-2 model of a major transition is incomplete because it overlooks a crucial component of fitness. It addresses that the evolution of ... More


Principles of Social Evolution

Andrew F.G. Bourke

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199231157
eISBN:
9780191774553
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231157.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Living things are organized in a hierarchy of levels. Genes group together in cells, cells group together in organisms, and organisms group together in societies. Even different species form ... More


Concluding Remarks

Eörs Szathmáry and Chrisantha Fernando

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents important lessons on the major transitions in evolution. It illustrates that a systematic consideration of three subsystems opens the door to an extended view of the major ... More


To Be or Not To Be: Where Is Self-Preservation in Evolutionary Theory?

Pamela Lyon

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter highlights Carl Woese’s message about cellular complexity. It addresses the phenotypic distance between a putative, hypothetical ur-replicator or ur-chromosome and anything that can ... More


The Evolution of Restraint in Structured Populations: Setting the Stage for an Egalitarian Major Transition

Benjamin Kerr and Joshua Nahum

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the evolution of restraint in simple ecosystems. It specifically presents both simulation and experimental data on the evolution of restraint. It argues that spatial structure ... More


Individuality and the Control of Life Cycles

Beckett Sterner

in Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226446318
eISBN:
9780226446592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226446592.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Evolutionary transitions in individuality occur when units of evolution at one level, such as single cells, associate together and evolve into higher-level units. I argue that multi-level selection ... More


Challenges of Integrating Complexity and Evolution into Economics

Robert Axtell, Alan Kirman, Iain D. Couzin, Daniel Fricke, Thorsten Hens, Michael E. Hochberg, John E. Mayfield, Peter Schuster, and Rajiv Sethi

in Complexity and Evolution: Toward a New Synthesis for Economics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035385
eISBN:
9780262337717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035385.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Complex systems theory and evolutionary theory hold important insight for economics, yet to date they have played a limited role in shaping modern economic theory. This chapter reviews different ... More


Multilevel Selection in a Broader Hierarchical Perspective

Telmo Pievani and Andrea Parravicini

in Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226426051
eISBN:
9780226426198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426198.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Since Darwin, multilevel selection has been the key concept of the hierarchical approach to evolution. The debate around the significance of group selection as an evolutionary phenomenon (in both an ... More


Cells, Colonies, and Clones: Individuality in the Volvocine Algae

Matthew D. Herron

in Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226446318
eISBN:
9780226446592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226446592.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The hierarchy of life results from a series of evolutionary transitions in individuality. In each case new, higher-level units emerged from coalitions of the lower-level units, resulting in entirely ... More


Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives

Scott Lidgard and Lynn K. Nyhart (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226446318
eISBN:
9780226446592
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226446592.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book provides an interdisciplinary exploration of biological individuality, by identifying leading and less familiar perceptions of individuality, what they are good for, and in what contexts. ... More


Constructive Dynamical Systems

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The most interesting aspect of systems is their birth and formation because it brings novelty into the world. How does such creativity, or constructivity work its way? We start by discussing the ... More


The Multicellular Organism as a Social Phenomenon

Jonathan Birch

in The Philosophy of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198733058
eISBN:
9780191797491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198733058.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

As Hamilton observed, the stability of cooperation within clonal groups of cells is no mystery, since the cells’ inclusive fitness interests are aligned. However, the process of social group ... More


Producing Behavior

Robert Aunger and Valerie Curtis

in Gaining Control: How human behavior evolved

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780199688951
eISBN:
9780191799334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688951.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter outlines our basic conceptual framework for understanding the psychological mechanisms by which brains control behavior and then learn from their experience, storing that learning in the ... More


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