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From the Velvet Glove to the Iron Fist: Criminal Sanctions for the Enforcement of Union Law

Michael Dougan

in Compliance and the Enforcement of EU Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199644735
eISBN:
9780191740695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199644735.003.0004
Subject:
Law, EU Law, Public International Law

This chapter analyses the obligations concerning the enforcement of substantive Union policies by the member states within the national legal systems. The use of criminal penalties for the ... More


Who Let the Dogs in?: The Domestication of Animals and Plants

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores the timing of and evolutionary forces involved in our domestication of animals and plants. How many and which genes were involved? How long ago did these changes occur? Can we ... More


The domestication of cereal crops

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

By 10 million years ago, the major cereal groups had diverged from each other and were distributed across the world. Many of these grassy plants have remained recalcitrant to domestication, but ... More


People and the emergence of crops

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter is concerned with the emergence and spread of the major crop groups from their centres of origin in Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas. Although the initial domestication of some crops ... More


Modeling Agricultural Productivity and Farming Effort

Timothy A. Kohler

in Emergence and Collapse of Early Villages: Models of Central Mesa Verde Archaeology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520270145
eISBN:
9780520951990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520270145.003.0006
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

We describe how we integrated variability in precipitation and temperature through time and across our study area with variabilityin soils to produce plausible estimates of potential maize production ... More


Policies or Prices? A Gendered Analysis of Drivers of Maize Production in Malawi and Zambia, 2002–13

Martin Prowse and Ellen Hillbom

in Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198799283
eISBN:
9780191839641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799283.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Maize is the basis for both agricultural production and food consumption in many areas of Southern Africa. This chapter presents a longitudinal study on changes in maize production based on Afrint ... More


Dirty Things: Bread, Maize, Women, and Christian Identity in Sixteenth-Century America

Heather Martel

in Food and Faith in Christian Culture

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231149976
eISBN:
9780231520799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231149976.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter looks at the physical and spiritual effects of “dirty” foods that concerned sixteenth-century Spanish and Catholics in North America. According to the sixteenth-century Milanese ... More


The Alachua of North-Central Florida

Misha Klein

in Late Prehistoric Florida: Archaeology at the Edge of the Mississippian World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780813040141
eISBN:
9780813043821
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813040141.003.0006
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter tackles the Alachua culture of north-central Florida, which emerged in Late Woodland times and persisted into the Spanish Mission period. Their material culture is not elaborate and ... More


The Sacred Maize Model and the Sponemann Site

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0006
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

The Sacred Maize model as applied to the American Bottom postulates that a series of related ideological innovations was successfully implemented and marked the Terminal Late Woodland period and ... More


The Early Terminal Late Woodland Period Sponemann Community Development

A. Martin Byers

in Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813029580
eISBN:
9780813039183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813029580.003.0007
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter interprets the Sponemann settlement pattern in developmental terms, as the working out over time of shifting proscriptive-prescriptive deontics arising from intensified cultivation and ... More


Malawi: political, policy, livelihoods, and market background

Ephraim Chirwa and Andrew Dorward

in Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199683529
eISBN:
9780191763069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Malawi, a small landlocked country, is highly dependent on the agricultural sector, particularly smallholder agriculture. The structure of production and of the economy have not changed significantly ... More


Direct impacts of input subsidies

Ephraim Chirwa and Andrew Dorward

in Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199683529
eISBN:
9780191763069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter provides evidence on the direct impacts of Malawi’s Farm Input Subsidies programme, based on analysis of household level survey data collected by the authors and findings from other ... More


Economy-wide effects of input subsidies

Ephraim Chirwa and Andrew Dorward

in Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199683529
eISBN:
9780191763069
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

A large national programme of agricultural input subsidies focusing on staple crops should have important wider market effects in addition to direct beneficiary impacts. This chapter reviews the ... More


Chicha Histories: Pre-Hispanic Brewing in the Andes and the Use of Ethnographic and Historical Analogues

Frances Hayashida

in Drink, Power, and Society in the Andes

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813033068
eISBN:
9780813038575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813033068.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter examines how changes over the last 500 years may have affected alcohol production and consumption in the Andes and questions attempts to project chicha production and consumption regimes ... More


Farmers' Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World

Stephen B. Brush

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300100495
eISBN:
9780300130140
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300100495.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This book defines the dimensions of crop diversity and questions surrounding it. Understanding the nature of crop diversity and its fate in the modern world is an international scientific enterprise ... More


African Smallholder Farmers on the Move: Farm and Non-Farm Trends for Six Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2002–15

Magnus Jirström, Maria Archila Bustos, and Sarah Alobo Loison

in Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198799283
eISBN:
9780191839641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799283.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter provides a broad descriptive background of central aspects of smallholder agriculture in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It offers an up-to-date picture of the current trends ... More


Gender and Rural Livelihoods: Agricultural Commercialization and Farm/Non-Farm Diversification

Agnes Andersson Djurfeldt

in Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198799283
eISBN:
9780191839641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799283.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines possible discrimination against female farm managers with respect to prices or market segmentation. Patterns of commercialization are fluid. Particular countries stand out with ... More


Agricultural Intensification Response to Agricultural Input Subsidies in Tanzania: A Spatial-Temporal and Gender Perspective, 2002–15

Elibariki E. Msuya, Aida Cuthbert Isinika, and Fred Mawunyo Dzanku

in Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198799283
eISBN:
9780191839641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799283.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

In Tanzania, structural adjustment policies implemented during the 1980s removed all agricultural subsidies. However, declining productivity and production of maize and rice—the main food ... More


The Modification and Manipulation of Landscape at Fort Center

Victor D. Thompson and Thomas J. Pluckhahn

in New Histories of Pre-Columbian Florida

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780813049366
eISBN:
9780813050140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813049366.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter discusses the nature of landscape modification at the Fort Center site, a large earthwork complex in the Lake Okeechobee basin of southern Florida. Previous interpretations of the ... More


Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya

Stephen K. Wambugu, Joseph T. Karugia, and Willis Oluoch-Kosura

in Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198799283
eISBN:
9780191839641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799283.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines maize productivity, technology use in maize, and the impact of non-farm income (NFI) on agricultural investment in Kenya, giving them a gender dimension. The study first ... More


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