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About the Book and Supporting Material

Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, Alexander Gray, Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, and Alexander Gray

in Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy: A Practical Python Guide for the Analysis of Survey Data

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151687
eISBN:
9781400848911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151687.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter begins by discussing the meaning of data mining, machine learning, and knowledge discovery. Data mining, machine learning, and knowledge discovery refer to research areas which can all ... More


Fast Computation on Massive Data Sets

Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, Alexander Gray, Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, and Alexander Gray

in Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy: A Practical Python Guide for the Analysis of Survey Data

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151687
eISBN:
9781400848911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151687.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes basic concepts and tools for tractably performing the computations described in the rest of this book. The need for fast algorithms for such analysis subroutines is becoming ... More


The Necessity of Order in Machine Learning: Is Order in Order?

A. Cornuéjols

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides a detailed introduction to, and overview of, the theories from machine learning, and introduces some of the basic theoretical concepts and models from computational studies of ... More


Epilogue: Let’s Educate

Oliver G. Selfridge

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter contends that there is much we can learn about the education of people by studying learning in machines. Indeed, machine learning (ML) is an important major part of artificial ... More


Machine Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Introduction to Covariate Shift Adaptation

Masashi Sugiyama and Motoaki Kawanabe

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780262017091
eISBN:
9780262301220
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017091.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

As the power of computing has grown over the past few decades, the field of machine learning has advanced rapidly in both theory and practice. Machine learning methods are usually based on the ... More


In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Frank E. Ritter, Josef Nerb, Erno Lehtinen, and Timothy O'Shea (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Order affects the results you get: different orders of presenting material can lead to qualitatively and quantitatively different learning outcomes. These differences occur in both natural and ... More


Rules of Order: Process Models of Human Learning

Josef Nerb, Frank E. Ritter, and Pat Langley

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Science is concerned not only with data, but also with models or theories that explain those data. Because human cognition is dynamic and involves change over time, accounts of cognition often take ... More


Learning Machine Translation

Cyril Goutte, Nicola Cancedda, Marc Dymetman, and George Foster (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262072977
eISBN:
9780262255097
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262072977.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

The Internet gives us access to a wealth of information in languages we don’t understand. The investigation of automated or semi-automated approaches to translation has become a thriving research ... More


The Quest for Intelligent Machines

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter addresses the question of whether a computer can become intelligent and how to test for that possibility. It introduces the idea of the Turing test, a test developed to determine, in an ... More


The Effects of Order: A Constraint-Based Explanation

Stellan Ohlsson

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a computational model that shows how information migrates from declarative to procedural knowledge and provides a powerful new learning mechanism for machine-learning ... More


Morphological analogy: Only a beginning

John Goldsmith

in Analogy in Grammar: Form and Acquisition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547548
eISBN:
9780191720628
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547548.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics, Computational Linguistics

A range of approaches to word structure assume segmentation of words into morphs. This chapter proposes explicit algorithm that takes natural language text as its input, and produces the ... More


Conclusions and Future Prospects

Masashi Sugiyama and Motoaki Kawanabe

in Machine Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Introduction to Covariate Shift Adaptation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780262017091
eISBN:
9780262301220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017091.003.0011
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter summarizes the main themes covered in the preceding discussions and discusses future prospects. This book has provided a comprehensive overview of theory, algorithms, and applications of ... More


A Statistical Machine Translation Primer

Nicola Cancedda, Marc Dymetman, George Foster, and Cyril Goutte

in Learning Machine Translation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262072977
eISBN:
9780262255097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262072977.003.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter provides an introduction to the main aspects of statistical machine translation (SMT). The discussions cover automatic evaluation of machine translation output, language modeling, ... More


Machine Learning

James H. Faghmous

in Systems Science and Population Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780190492397
eISBN:
9780190492427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190492397.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter introduces non-computational scientists to the general field of machine learning and its methods. The chapter begins by outlining the common structure of machine learning applications, ... More


Input Recognition

Otmar Hilliges

in Computational Interaction

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198799603
eISBN:
9780191839832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799603.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Sensing of user input lies at the core of HCI research. Deciding which input mechanisms to use and how to implement them such that they work in a way that is easy to use, robust to various ... More


Introduction and Problem Formulation

Masashi Sugiyama and Motoaki Kawanabe

in Machine Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Introduction to Covariate Shift Adaptation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780262017091
eISBN:
9780262301220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017091.003.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter provides an introduction to covariate shift adaptation toward machine learning in a non-stationary environment. It begins by discussing cover machine learning under covariate shift. It ... More


Building Learning Systems

John E. Kelly and Steve Hamm

in Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231168564
eISBN:
9780231537278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231168564.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

This chapter examines machine learning systems. The development of IBM's Watson represented a major advance in the science of machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence that focuses on ... More


The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Arlindo Oliveira

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This book addresses the connections between computers, life, evolution, brains, and minds. Digital computers are recent and have changed our society. However, they represent just the latest way to ... More


Coda: The Algorithmic Imagination

Ed Finn

in What Algorithms Want: Imagination in the Age of Computing

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035927
eISBN:
9780262338837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035927.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming

The coda retraces the genealogy of the algorithm to consider our future prospects for achieving the twinned desires embedded in the heart of effective computability: the quest for universal knowledge ... More


Semi-Supervised Learning

Olivier Chapelle, Bernhard Scholkopf, and Alexander Zien (eds)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

In the field of machine learning, semi-supervised learning (SSL) occupies the middle ground, between supervised learning (in which all training examples are labeled) and unsupervised learning (in ... More


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