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The Computational Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The end of the 1960s marked a new era in lightness perception. The shift from a contrast approach to a computational approach was part of a larger change taking place in psychology, a change that ... More


Limits of stereoscopic vision

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews methods for measuring stereoacuity and the factors that influence it. Topics covered include tests of stereoscopic vision, stereoacuity-basic concepts, the upper disparity limit; ... More


The Pulfrich Effect

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0028
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

The processing of binocular disparity has temporal as well as spatial characteristics. This chapter discusses the question of how the visual system processes signals that arrive both at different ... More


The Gestalt Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The third period of lightness theory saw the arrival of the Gestalt psychologists, with their penetrating insights and dramatic experiments. Rejecting the clumsy two-stage conception of raw ... More


The Contrast Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Chronologically the fourth period of lightness theory, also known as the contrast period, extended from World War II until the end of the 1960s. Ideologically, however, it began at the end of the ... More


Computational Models

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The computer revolution produced two quite different streams of work on lightness perception. These streams are represented by decomposition models and brightness models, respectively. Perhaps the ... More


The Anchoring Problem

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter deals with the essential but only recently recognized problem of anchoring in lightness perception. Previously, lightness theories had no anchoring rules and thus could predict only ... More


Contrast Sensitivity and Acuity

Russell L. De Valois and Karen K. De Valois

in Spatial Vision

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195066579
eISBN:
9780199872220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195066579.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the various aspects of visual behavior. The overall sensitivity of human observers to spatially varying patterns is considered. The luminance contrast sensitivity function ... More


Sensitivity to Color Variations

Russell L. De Valois and Karen K. De Valois

in Spatial Vision

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195066579
eISBN:
9780199872220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195066579.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

A study of the visual system is often divided into topics which are then treated as discrete fields. Two of these are spatial vision and color vision. Such an arbitrary division leads one to overlook ... More


The limits of stereoscopic vision

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Binocular Vision and Stereopsis

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195084764
eISBN:
9780199871049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195084764.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins with a discussion of basic terminology and tasks, tests of stereoscopic vision, and stereoacuity. It then covers spatial factors in stereoacuity, luminance contrast and ... More


Objective and Subjective Sides of Perception

Alan Gilchrist

in Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199597277
eISBN:
9780191741883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199597277.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

Every perceptual experience has an objective and a subjective side. We see object size, independent of distance, but we also see that distant objects project smaller images. Early modern conceptions ... More


Aerial perspectives

Helen E. Ross and Cornelis Plug

in The Mystery of The Moon Illusion: Exploring Size Perception

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198508625
eISBN:
9780191584893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508625.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The previous chapter described how the horizon enlargement associated with the moon illusion was erroneously ascribed to atmospheric refraction, an explanation eventually abandoned by scientists. If ... More


The Effect of Global Contrast Distribution on Colour Appearance

K. Wolf and A.C. Hurlbert

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter tests the hypothesis that increasing the number of distinct surfaces that change consistently with the local background causes stronger reinforcement of the illuminant colour signalled ... More


Inherent Biases in Spontaneous Cortical Dynamics

Chou P. Hung, Benjamin M. Ramsden, and Anna Wang Roe

in The Dynamic Brain: An Exploration of Neuronal Variability and Its Functional Significance

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393798
eISBN:
9780199897049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393798.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Does visual perception begin with a ‘blank slate’? Is the activity of visual cortex ‘at rest’ composed of a random pattern of noisy neurons? Or is there structure inherent in the spontaneous activity ... More


Visual Displays

Zhong-Lin Lu and Barbara Dosher

in Visual Psychophysics: From Laboratory to Theory

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019453
eISBN:
9780262314930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019453.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Vision

The evaluation, calibration, and choice of visual displays are critical to the success of the psychophysics enterprise. In this chapter, we show how to evaluate and calibrate visual displays and ... More


Low-Level Features of Film: What They Are and Why We Would Be Lost Without Them

James E. Cutting, & Jordan E. DeLong Kaitlin L. Brunick

in Psychocinematics: Exploring Cognition at the Movies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199862139
eISBN:
9780199332755
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199862139.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Film theorists have historically examined narrative as the primary influence on the viewer’s experience of a film; however, the growing trend in the cognitive study of film is the study of ... More


Mise-en-Cadre

James E. Cutting

in Movies on Our Minds: The Evolution of Cinematic Engagement

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780197567777
eISBN:
9780197567807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197567777.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Mise-en-cadre means “placed within the frame.” Filmmakers have exploited the use of screen positions over the course of whole movies. This chapter presents examples of how luminance, motion, and ... More


The Web and Flow of Popular Cinema

James E. Cutting

in Movies on Our Minds: The Evolution of Cinematic Engagement

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780197567777
eISBN:
9780197567807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197567777.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Rhythm is a much-discussed term in film theory. This chapter examines the patterns of shot durations, motion, luminance, and clutter across the length of movies in two ways. First, it averages across ... More


Color Vision

Peter H. Schiller and Edward J. Tehovnik

in Vision and the Visual System

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780199936533
eISBN:
9780190258054
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199936533.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Vision

This chapter has six subdivisions. The first section, A, discusses the basic facts about how different wavelengths in the visual range are processed. In section B the manner in which brain areas and ... More


Geometric-Optical Illusions Under Isoluminance?

Kai Hamburger, Thorsten Hansen, and Karl R. Gegenfurtner

in The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199794607
eISBN:
9780190654795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

This chapter briefly introduces nine classical geometric-optical illusions. These include the Delboeuf illusion, the Ebbinghaus illusion, the Judd illusion, the Müller-Lyer illusion, the Ponzo ... More


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