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The Problem of Logical Omniscience, I

Robert C. Stalnaker

in Context and Content: Essays on Intentionality in Speech and Thought

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237075
eISBN:
9780191598456
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237073.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Formal theories of knowledge, belief, and partial belief usually make the idealizing assumption that an agent's knowledge or beliefs are closed under logical consequence—that knowers or believers are ... More


The Problem of Logical Omniscience, II

Robert C. Stalnaker

in Context and Content: Essays on Intentionality in Speech and Thought

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237075
eISBN:
9780191598456
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237073.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This second exploration of the problem of logical omniscience uses a simple abstract model of a community of knowers, developed by theoretical computer scientists, to help sharpen the problem. ... More


Logic and Idealization

David Christensen

in Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263257
eISBN:
9780191602603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263256.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Addresses the issue of idealization in epistemology. Some have argued that probabilistic coherence, in particular, imposes an unacceptably high level of idealization; others would even reject ... More


Three common objections to Bayesian frameworks

Michael G. Titelbaum

in Quitting Certainties: A Bayesian Framework Modeling Degrees of Belief

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199658305
eISBN:
9780191748134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658305.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter shows how the Certainty-Loss Framework (CLF) and its interpretation developed in the previous two chapters offers new responses to traditional objections to Subjective Bayesianism. ... More


Intentional Operators

Graham Priest

in Towards Non-Being: The Logic and Metaphysics of Intentionality

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199262540
eISBN:
9780191602672
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199262543.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Chapter 1 provides a world-semantics for intentional propositional operators. Impossible worlds of various kinds are deployed to ensure that the operators behave in various important ways; notably ... More


Quasi Truth and the Nature of Induction

Newton C. A. da Costa and Steven French

in Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195156515
eISBN:
9780199785896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515651X.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter considers the “vertical” relationship between theory and evidence. In particular, it considers the impact of the conception of “partial” truth on the dynamics of belief change. A new ... More


Hyperintensionality

Mark Jago

in The Impossible: An Essay on Hyperintensionality

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198709008
eISBN:
9780191779596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709008.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter introduces a number of related problems for the possible worlds approach to analysing knowledge, belief, information and content, including the infamous logical omniscience problem. The ... More


Epistemic Logics

Francesco Berto and Mark Jago

in Impossible Worlds

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198812791
eISBN:
9780191850585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812791.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Standard possible-worlds epistemic logic gives rise to the problem of logical omniscience. There are attempts to deal with the problem without using impossible worlds. A number of these approaches ... More


Rationality’s Fixed Point (or: In Defense of Right Reason)

Michael G. Titelbaum

in Oxford Studies in Epistemology Volume 5

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198722762
eISBN:
9780191794087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722762.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This article defends the Fixed Point Thesis: that it is always a rational mistake to have false beliefs about the requirements of rationality. The Fixed Point Thesis is inspired by logical ... More


Probability and Decision Theory

Juan Comesaña

in Being Rational and Being Right

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198847717
eISBN:
9780191882388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198847717.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter introduces the mathematics of probability and decision theory. The probability calculus is introduced in both a set-theoretic and a propositional context. Probability is also related to ... More


Impossible Worlds

Francesco Berto and Mark Jago

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198812791
eISBN:
9780191850585
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812791.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The latter half of the twentieth century witnessed an ‘intensional revolution’, a great collective effort to analyse notions which are absolutely fundamental to our understanding of the world and of ... More


From Possible to Impossible Worlds

Francesco Berto and Mark Jago

in Impossible Worlds

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198812791
eISBN:
9780191850585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812791.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Possible worlds are ways things might have been. They find applications in analysing possibility and necessity; propositions; knowledge and belief; information; and indicative and counterfactual ... More


Intentional Operators

Graham Priest

in Towards Non-Being

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198783596
eISBN:
9780191839856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783596.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Chapter 1 provides a world-semantics for intentional propositional operators. Impossible worlds of various kinds are deployed to ensure that the operators behave in various important ways; notably ... More


Principles of epistemic logic I: Knowledge

Sven Rosenkranz

in Justification as Ignorance: An Essay in Epistemology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198865636
eISBN:
9780191897979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865636.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

All epistemic logics come with some idealizations. Not all such idealizations seem acceptable. A large family of epistemic logics assume that if ⌜φ‎⌝ and ⌜ψ‎⌝ are logically equivalent, so are ⌜One ... More


Neighbourhood Semantics

Graham Priest

in Towards Non-Being

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198783596
eISBN:
9780191839856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783596.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Chapter 15 concerns a quite different semantics for intentional operators, neighbourhood semantics. This is similar to the neighbourhood semantics for modal logics. Such a semantics is presented, and ... More


Principles of epistemic logic II: Being in a position to know

Sven Rosenkranz

in Justification as Ignorance: An Essay in Epistemology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198865636
eISBN:
9780191897979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865636.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Principles of being in a position to know that are candidates for inclusion in a combined logic for knowledge and being in a position to know are critically reviewed. Some are disqualified for ... More


Two systems of epistemic logic

Sven Rosenkranz

in Justification as Ignorance: An Essay in Epistemology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198865636
eISBN:
9780191897979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865636.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Drawing on the results of chapters 2 to 4, two non-normal, multimodal axiomatic systems for both knowledge (k) and being in a position to know (K) are introduced—an idealized system and a weaker, ... More


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