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Forbidden Areas and Anchor Points

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

The outcomes of sociopolitical processes often depend on the factor in shortest supply; this makes multiplication of factors superior to their addition. Naïve linear regression may not detect all ... More


The rise and rise of the spreadsheet

Martin Campbell-Kelly

in The History of Mathematical Tables: From Sumer to Spreadsheets

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198508410
eISBN:
9780191708831
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508410.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The mathematical table, as a paper-based artefact, is close to the end of its technological life. Tables had two main uses — as a calculating aid (such as a logarithm table) and as a data storage ... More


Determinants

Simon Scott

in Traces and Determinants of Pseudodifferential Operators

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780198568360
eISBN:
9780191594748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568360.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Analysis

Determinants as abstract invariants have received less study in the mathematical literature than traces, on which there is an extensive literature. However, determinants can be treated in a general ... More


The making of logarithm tables

Graham Jagger

in The History of Mathematical Tables: From Sumer to Spreadsheets

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198508410
eISBN:
9780191708831
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508410.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

In 1614, the invention of logarithms burst upon the world with the publication of Napier's Mirifici logarithmorum canonis description, or A description of the admirable table of logarithms. By the ... More


ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMA

V. E. Fortov, I. T. Iakubov, and A. G. Khrapak

in Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299805
eISBN:
9780191714948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299805.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter focuses on the electrical conductivity of partially ionized plasma. The case of ideal plasma is considered, and the Lorentz formula for weakly ionized plasma and Spitzer formula for ... More


Some Extensions

James Davidson

in Stochastic Limit Theory: An Introduction for Econometricians

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774037
eISBN:
9780191596117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774036.003.0025
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Four extensions of the CLT are considered in this chapter. First, estimated normalization, using methods of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent variance estimation. Second, random ... More


Material Structure and Calculating Machines

Kurt Smith

in Matter Matters: Metaphysics and Methodology in the Early Modern Period

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199583652
eISBN:
9780191723155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583652.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter it is shown how Leibniz and others in the period understood bodies to be mathematically informed (structured). This led to their designing and constructing calculating machines—the ... More


Mathematics

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0005
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

Graphs are used to represent pictorially or clarify a relationship between two variables, say x and y, or t and function (t). If x and y are related by the linear ... More


Special Functions and Approximations

Stefan Thurner, Rudolf Hanel, and Peter Klimekl

in Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198821939
eISBN:
9780191861062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198821939.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The chapter contains the most important mathematical forumas that are used throughout the book. This collection should make the book self-contained. The chapter also contains some useful ... More


Murphy’s Law: I Knew this Would Happen to Me

Vlatko Vedral

in Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198815433
eISBN:
9780191917240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198815433.003.0011
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Life now seems so robust that it becomes difficult to imagine how it could ever end. Are we now masters of our own destiny? With the robustness of ... More


Children of the Aimless Chance: Randomness versus Determinism

Vlatko Vedral

in Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198815433
eISBN:
9780191917240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198815433.003.0017
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

In our search for the ultimate law, P, that allows us to encode the whole of reality we have come across a very fundamental obstacle. As Deutsch argued, P ... More


Destruction ab Toto: Nothing from Something

Vlatko Vedral

in Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198815433
eISBN:
9780191917240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198815433.003.0020
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

The main view promoted by this book is that underlying many different aspects of reality is some form of information processing. The theory of information ... More


Leibniz’s Theme, Babbage’s Dream

Subrata Dasgupta

in It Began with Babbage: The Genesis of Computer Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199309412
eISBN:
9780197562857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199309412.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

The German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) is perhaps best remembered in science as the co-inventor (with Newton) of the differential calculus. In ... More


Constant Depth Prefix Circuits With Unbounded Fan-In

S. Lakshmivarahan and Sudarshan K. Dhall

in Parallel Computing Using the Prefix Problem

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195088496
eISBN:
9780197560549
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195088496.003.0016
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

It is well known that among the three classes of the PRAM models, namely, CRCW, CREW, and EREW, the CRCW models are the weakest, in the sense that, they ... More


Essential Mathematics

Christopher O. Oriakhi

in Chemistry in Quantitative Language: Fundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195367997
eISBN:
9780197562635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195367997.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry

Significant figures are the number of digits in a measured or calculated value that are statistically significant or offer reasonable and reliable information. Significant figures in any ... More


Renormalization Theory and Effective Field Theories

Matthias Neubert

in Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 108, July 2017

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198855743
eISBN:
9780191889370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198855743.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 1 features lectures that review the formalism of renormalization in quantum field theories with special regard to effective quantum field theories. While renormalization theory is part of ... More


Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

Thomas Becher

in Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 108, July 2017

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198855743
eISBN:
9780191889370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198855743.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The lectures that appear within this chapter provide an introduction to soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). It begins by discussing resummation for soft-photon effects in QED, including soft ... More


Making Regression More Flexible

in Introductory Econometrics: Intuition, Proof, and Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804772624
eISBN:
9780804777209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804772624.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter shows that explanatory variables can appear in discrete and nonlinear form. These forms give us the opportunity to represent a wide and varied range of possible relationships between the ... More


The Modern Approach: Right-Angled Triangles

Glen Van Brummelen

in Heavenly Mathematics: The Forgotten Art of Spherical Trigonometry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175997
eISBN:
9781400844807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175997.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the modern approach to solving right-angled triangles. After a brief background on John Napier's trigonometric work, in which he referred mostly to right-angled spherical ... More


A Quick Introduction to Benfordʼs Law

Steven J. Miller

in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691147611
eISBN:
9781400866595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides a brief overview of Benford's law. It states Benford's law of digit bias and describes its history. The chapter then discusses the origins of Benford's law and gives numerous ... More


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