## Forbidden Areas and Anchor Points

*Rein Taagepera*

### in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- September 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199534661
- eISBN:
- 9780191715921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0008
- Subject:
- Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

The outcomes of sociopolitical processes often depend on the factor in shortest supply; this makes multiplication of factors superior to their addition. Naïve linear regression may not detect all ... More

## The rise and rise of the spreadsheet

*Martin Campbell-Kelly*

### in The History of Mathematical Tables: From Sumer to Spreadsheets

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198508410
- eISBN:
- 9780191708831
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508410.003.0013
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The mathematical table, as a paper-based artefact, is close to the end of its technological life. Tables had two main uses — as a calculating aid (such as a logarithm table) and as a data storage ... More

## Determinants

*Simon Scott*

### in Traces and Determinants of Pseudodifferential Operators

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- January 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780198568360
- eISBN:
- 9780191594748
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568360.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Analysis

Determinants as abstract invariants have received less study in the mathematical literature than traces, on which there is an extensive literature. However, determinants can be treated in a general ... More

## The making of logarithm tables

*Graham Jagger*

### in The History of Mathematical Tables: From Sumer to Spreadsheets

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198508410
- eISBN:
- 9780191708831
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508410.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

In 1614, the invention of logarithms burst upon the world with the publication of Napier's Mirifici logarithmorum canonis description, or A description of the admirable table of logarithms. By the ... More

## ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMA

*V. E. Fortov, I. T. Iakubov, and A. G. Khrapak*

### in Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780199299805
- eISBN:
- 9780191714948
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299805.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter focuses on the electrical conductivity of partially ionized plasma. The case of ideal plasma is considered, and the Lorentz formula for weakly ionized plasma and Spitzer formula for ... More

## Some Extensions

*James Davidson*

### in Stochastic Limit Theory: An Introduction for Econometricians

- Published in print:
- 1994
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198774037
- eISBN:
- 9780191596117
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198774036.003.0025
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Four extensions of the CLT are considered in this chapter. First, estimated normalization, using methods of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent variance estimation. Second, random ... More

## Material Structure and Calculating Machines

*Kurt Smith*

### in Matter Matters: Metaphysics and Methodology in the Early Modern Period

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- September 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199583652
- eISBN:
- 9780191723155
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583652.003.0012
- Subject:
- Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter it is shown how Leibniz and others in the period understood bodies to be mathematically informed (structured). This led to their designing and constructing calculating machines—the ... More

## Mathematics

*Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley*

### in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780199595150
- eISBN:
- 9780191918032
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0005
- Subject:
- Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

Graphs are used to represent pictorially or clarify a relationship between two variables, say x and y, or t and function (t). If x and y are related by the linear ... More

## Special Functions and Approximations

*Stefan Thurner, Rudolf Hanel, and Peter Klimekl*

### in Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- November 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780198821939
- eISBN:
- 9780191861062
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198821939.003.0008
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The chapter contains the most important mathematical forumas that are used throughout the book. This collection should make the book self-contained. The chapter also contains some useful ... More

## Murphy’s Law: I Knew this Would Happen to Me

*Vlatko Vedral*

### in Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198815433
- eISBN:
- 9780191917240
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198815433.003.0011
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Life now seems so robust that it becomes difficult to imagine how it could ever end. Are we now masters of our own destiny? With the robustness of ... More

## Children of the Aimless Chance: Randomness versus Determinism

*Vlatko Vedral*

### in Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198815433
- eISBN:
- 9780191917240
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198815433.003.0017
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

In our search for the ultimate law, P, that allows us to encode the whole of reality we have come across a very fundamental obstacle. As Deutsch argued, P ... More

## Destruction ab Toto: Nothing from Something

*Vlatko Vedral*

### in Decoding Reality: The Universe as Quantum Information

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198815433
- eISBN:
- 9780191917240
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198815433.003.0020
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

The main view promoted by this book is that underlying many different aspects of reality is some form of information processing. The theory of information ... More

## Leibniz’s Theme, Babbage’s Dream

*Subrata Dasgupta*

### in It Began with Babbage: The Genesis of Computer Science

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780199309412
- eISBN:
- 9780197562857
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780199309412.003.0005
- Subject:
- Computer Science, History of Computer Science

The German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) is perhaps best remembered in science as the co-inventor (with Newton) of the differential calculus. In ... More

## Constant Depth Prefix Circuits With Unbounded Fan-In

*S. Lakshmivarahan and Sudarshan K. Dhall*

### in Parallel Computing Using the Prefix Problem

- Published in print:
- 1994
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780195088496
- eISBN:
- 9780197560549
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780195088496.003.0016
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

It is well known that among the three classes of the PRAM models, namely, CRCW, CREW, and EREW, the CRCW models are the weakest, in the sense that, they ... More

## Essential Mathematics

*Christopher O. Oriakhi*

### in Chemistry in Quantitative Language: Fundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780195367997
- eISBN:
- 9780197562635
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780195367997.003.0005
- Subject:
- Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry

Significant figures are the number of digits in a measured or calculated value that are statistically significant or offer reasonable and reliable information. Significant figures in any ... More

## Renormalization Theory and Effective Field Theories

*Matthias Neubert*

### in Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 108, July 2017

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- August 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198855743
- eISBN:
- 9780191889370
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198855743.003.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 1 features lectures that review the formalism of renormalization in quantum field theories with special regard to effective quantum field theories. While renormalization theory is part of ... More

## Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

*Thomas Becher*

### in Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 108, July 2017

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- August 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198855743
- eISBN:
- 9780191889370
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198855743.003.0005
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The lectures that appear within this chapter provide an introduction to soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). It begins by discussing resummation for soft-photon effects in QED, including soft ... More

## Making Regression More Flexible

### in Introductory Econometrics: Intuition, Proof, and Practice

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- June 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780804772624
- eISBN:
- 9780804777209
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Stanford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.11126/stanford/9780804772624.003.0013
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter shows that explanatory variables can appear in discrete and nonlinear form. These forms give us the opportunity to represent a wide and varied range of possible relationships between the ... More

## The Modern Approach: Right-Angled Triangles

*Glen Van Brummelen*

### in Heavenly Mathematics: The Forgotten Art of Spherical Trigonometry

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691175997
- eISBN:
- 9781400844807
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691175997.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the modern approach to solving right-angled triangles. After a brief background on John Napier's trigonometric work, in which he referred mostly to right-angled spherical ... More

## A Quick Introduction to Benfordʼs Law

*Steven J. Miller*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides a brief overview of Benford's law. It states Benford's law of digit bias and describes its history. The chapter then discusses the origins of Benford's law and gives numerous ... More