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Locomotor Training: Principles and Practice

Susan Harkema, PhD, Andrea Behrman, PhD, PT, and Hugues Barbeau, PhD

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195342086
eISBN:
9780199897063
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342086.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Techniques

Locomotor training is an emerging rehabilitation intervention for recovery of function after neurologic injury or disease and the physiological basis and scientific evidence supporting its use is ... More


Primate Locomotor Evolution: Biomechanical Studies of Primate Locomotion and Their Implications for Understanding Primate Neuroethology

Daniel Schmitt

in Primate Neuroethology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195326598
eISBN:
9780199864904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326598.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter argues that primates (including humans) show patterns of locomotion and locomotor control that are different from all other mammals. Changes in limb function associated with the adaptive ... More


Decoding the Mechanisms of Gait Generation and Gait Transition in the Salamander Using Robots and Mathematical Models

Jeremie Knuesel, Jean-Marie Cabelguen, and Auke Ijspeert

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The spinal mechanisms of gait generation and gait transition in vertebrates are still not properly understood. This chapter explores these mechanisms in the salamander, an amphibian capable of ... More


Locomotion

Gillian Muir

in The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat: A Handbook with Tests

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195162851
eISBN:
9780199863891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162851.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on the mechanics and neural control of locomotion in the rat and outlines the methods available for measuring locomotor abilities in this ... More


Walking and running in humans

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter highlights the locomotion (walking and running) in humans. Several studies have also addressed the different modifications of the locomotor pattern that occur during training or in ... More


Locomotor Play

Anthony D. Pellegrini

in The Role of Play in Human Development

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195367324
eISBN:
9780199894185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367324.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter examines locomotor play. Specifically, it discusses the definition of locomotor play in human and non-human juveniles, as well as ontogenetic and sex trends. It also examines locomotor ... More


Neurophysiological Principles for the Assessment of Residual Motor Control Below the Spinal Cord Injury in Humans

Byron A Kakulas, Keith Tansey, and Milan R Dimitrijevic

in Restorative Neurology of Spinal Cord Injury

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199746507
eISBN:
9780199918768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746507.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses the specific clinical and neurophysiological principles that underlie the assessment of residual motor control caudal to a spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. It describes ... More


Locomotor Training as an Activity-Based Therapy for Posture, Standing, and Walking

Susan J. Harkema, Andrea L. Behrman, and Hugues Barbeau

in Locomotor Training: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195342086
eISBN:
9780199897063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342086.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Techniques

This chapter presents the concepts that have facilitated the translation of scientific evidence for activity-dependent plasticity into the clinical implementation of an activity-based therapy, ... More


Swimming in the mollusc Clione limacina based on wing flapping

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter focuses on the sea angel Clione limacina, a marine mollusc and its importance for examining all components of the locomotor control system at the network and cellular levels. An adult ... More


Swimming in the leech

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter presents opportunities for examining all components of the locomotor control system at the network and cellular levels in leech. There are two forms of locomotion in the leech – swimming ... More


Walking in the crayfish and lobster

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Walking with legs is the main form of locomotion in most species of decapod Crustacea. This chapter focuses on the walking movements in molluscs such as crayfish and lobster. In addition, some ... More


Flying in the locust

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter focuses on flying patterns and its mechanism in locusts, which fly by rhythmically flapping their two pairs of wings. Locusts can develop high air speeds and can cover long distances. ... More


Swimming in the lamprey

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter discusses swimming in insects and animals such as lamprey. Swimming by means of undulatory movements of the trunk is the main form of locomotion in most aquatic vertebrate species. Most ... More


Head-Trunk Coordination and Locomotor Equilibrium in 3-to 8-Year-Old Children

Christine Assaiante and and Bernard Amblard

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Thirty-six healthy normal children from three to eight years of age joined in this experiment. Six age groups of six children each were formed. The subjects were asked to walk normally on flat ground ... More


Vestibular Compensation: Sensitive Period and Role of Sensory-Motor Activity in Substitution Processes

Yohʼi Zennou-Azogui and Christian Xerri

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0101
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter discusses vestibular compensation as a multisensory substitution process. The contribution of somatosensory afferents, the remaining labyrinthine afferents, and the visual afferents are ... More


Motor imagery for optimizing the reacquisition of locomotor skills after cerebral damage

Francine Malouin, Carol L. Richards, Philip L. Jackson, and Julien Doyon

in The neurophysiological foundations of mental and motor imagery

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199546251
eISBN:
9780191701412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546251.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter illustrates the effectiveness of mental practice during motor recovery of gait and locomotor skills. It explores the use of ... More


Brain, locomotion, diet, and culture: how a primate, by chance, became a man

Yves Coppens

in Origins of the Human Brain

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523901
eISBN:
9780191689048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523901.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

In demonstrating the stages on how a primate became a man, the chapter divides this into two steps. The first step is set about 8 million years ago, during the time of Australopithecus, the first ... More


Adaptations to Life on Land

Michel Laurin

in How Vertebrates Left the Water

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520266476
eISBN:
9780520947986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520266476.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the main adaptations and exaptations (preadaptations) for terrestrial life in stegocephalians, first examining the evolution of the locomotor system (limb and girdle). It then ... More


The Evolution of Sauropod Locomotion: Morphological Diversity of a Secondarily Quadrupedal Radiation

Matthew T. Carrano

in The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520246232
eISBN:
9780520932333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520246232.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter uses a phylogenetic framework to address the morphological and functional diversity observed in the secondarily quadrupedal sauropods. It interprets the resultant patterns in light of ... More


Paleoenvironment

Denise F. Su, Stanley H. Ambrose, David Degusta, and Yohannes Haile-Selassie

in Ardipithecus kadabba: Late Miocene Evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254404
eISBN:
9780520942509
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254404.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the paleoenvironment of the Middle Awash study area in the Afar Rift of Ethiopia. Different aspects of the large mammalian faunal communities from the Asa Koma and Kuseralee ... More


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