*Andrew Whitaker*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- August 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198742999
- eISBN:
- 9780191802959
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742999.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

During the 1960s, Bell produced his seminal work on the foundations of quantum theory, first showing that, contrary to von Neumann’s argument, hidden variable theories were allowed but then that they ...
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During the 1960s, Bell produced his seminal work on the foundations of quantum theory, first showing that, contrary to von Neumann’s argument, hidden variable theories were allowed but then that they had to be non-local. Thus, he showed that quantum theory did not respect local causality, and he outlined experiments that could be used to test whether the assumption of local realism was true in quantum theory: Bell’s theorem, or Bell’s inequality, or Bell’s inequalities. His work was followed up by John Clauser, Abner Shimony, Michael Horne, and Richard Holt, who produced the CHSH inequality. Bell had moved to CERN, where he worked on the theory of neutrino experiments, and on nuclear and elementary particle physics, making crucial suggestions concerning the use of gauge theory for each type of physical force and also producing the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly, or the ABJ anomaly.Less

During the 1960s, Bell produced his seminal work on the foundations of quantum theory, first showing that, contrary to von Neumann’s argument, hidden variable theories were allowed but then that they had to be non-local. Thus, he showed that quantum theory did not respect local causality, and he outlined experiments that could be used to test whether the assumption of local realism was true in quantum theory: Bell’s theorem, or Bell’s inequality, or Bell’s inequalities. His work was followed up by John Clauser, Abner Shimony, Michael Horne, and Richard Holt, who produced the CHSH inequality. Bell had moved to CERN, where he worked on the theory of neutrino experiments, and on nuclear and elementary particle physics, making crucial suggestions concerning the use of gauge theory for each type of physical force and also producing the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly, or the ABJ anomaly.

*Valerio Scarani*

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- September 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198788416
- eISBN:
- 9780191830327
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198788416.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Nonlocality was discovered by John Bell in 1964, in the context of the debates about quantum theory, but is a phenomenon that can be studied in its own right. Its observation proves that measurements ...
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Nonlocality was discovered by John Bell in 1964, in the context of the debates about quantum theory, but is a phenomenon that can be studied in its own right. Its observation proves that measurements are not revealing pre-determined values, falsifying the idea of “local hidden variables” suggested by Einstein and others. One is then forced to make some radical choice: either nature is intrinsically statistical and individual events are unspeakable, or our familiar space-time cannot be the setting for the whole of physics. As phenomena, nonlocality and its consequences will have to be predicted by any future theory, and may possibly play the role of foundational principles in these developments. But nonlocality has found a role in applied physics too: it can be used for “device-independent” certification of the correct functioning of random number generators and other devices. After a self-contained introduction to the topic, this monograph on nonlocality presents the main tools and results following a logical, rather than a chronological, order.Less

Nonlocality was discovered by John Bell in 1964, in the context of the debates about quantum theory, but is a phenomenon that can be studied in its own right. Its observation proves that measurements are not revealing pre-determined values, falsifying the idea of “local hidden variables” suggested by Einstein and others. One is then forced to make some radical choice: either nature is intrinsically statistical and individual events are unspeakable, or our familiar space-time cannot be the setting for the whole of physics. As phenomena, nonlocality and its consequences will have to be predicted by any future theory, and may possibly play the role of foundational principles in these developments. But nonlocality has found a role in applied physics too: it can be used for “device-independent” certification of the correct functioning of random number generators and other devices. After a self-contained introduction to the topic, this monograph on nonlocality presents the main tools and results following a logical, rather than a chronological, order.

*William J. Mullin*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198795131
- eISBN:
- 9780191836480
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795131.003.0007
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 7 discusses the Bell theorem and its demonstration using Mermin’s machine. The Bell theorem proves that a theory based on local realism (one with hidden variables) must satisfy certain ...
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Chapter 7 discusses the Bell theorem and its demonstration using Mermin’s machine. The Bell theorem proves that a theory based on local realism (one with hidden variables) must satisfy certain inequalities; quantum mechanics predicts these are violated. Mermin designed a gedanken experiment having a double-particle source and two detectors each having three settings, which can correspond to measurements along three spin orientations. A simple hidden-variable assumption is shown to violate quantum predictions. The CHSH inequality, a form of the general Bell inequality, is proved. This relation has been shown to be violated experimentally in quantum experiments, implying that quantum mechanics indeed has “spooky action at a distance.” Many experiments over the years had loopholes, ways used to explain away the data in order to preserve local reality, but recent experiments have been able to eliminate most of these.Less

Chapter 7 discusses the Bell theorem and its demonstration using Mermin’s machine. The Bell theorem proves that a theory based on local realism (one with hidden variables) must satisfy certain inequalities; quantum mechanics predicts these are violated. Mermin designed a gedanken experiment having a double-particle source and two detectors each having three settings, which can correspond to measurements along three spin orientations. A simple hidden-variable assumption is shown to violate quantum predictions. The CHSH inequality, a form of the general Bell inequality, is proved. This relation has been shown to be violated experimentally in quantum experiments, implying that quantum mechanics indeed has “spooky action at a distance.” Many experiments over the years had loopholes, ways used to explain away the data in order to preserve local reality, but recent experiments have been able to eliminate most of these.

*William J. Mullin*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198795131
- eISBN:
- 9780191836480
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795131.003.0005
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Entanglement is the superposition of two or more particles in multiple states. An example is given for the double-well potential; another involves particles with spin 1/2. Measurement of spin is ...
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Entanglement is the superposition of two or more particles in multiple states. An example is given for the double-well potential; another involves particles with spin 1/2. Measurement of spin is carried out by a Stern–Gerlach apparatus, using the deflection of a spin by a magnet. Entangled spin-1/2 states, namely triplet states having total spin 1, and the singlet state, with spin 0, are also examined; the latter state appears in same form when expressed in spin up/down along any Cartesian coordinate. The determination of one of the spins in an entangled singlet state immediately determines the other, resulting in a “spooky action at a distance.” Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) claimed to show, on the basis of local realism, that quantum mechanics must be incomplete because of this feature. Their logic suggests that one might explain the instantaneous results by invoking “hidden variables” not contained in a quantum treatment.Less

Entanglement is the superposition of two or more particles in multiple states. An example is given for the double-well potential; another involves particles with spin 1/2. Measurement of spin is carried out by a Stern–Gerlach apparatus, using the deflection of a spin by a magnet. Entangled spin-1/2 states, namely triplet states having total spin 1, and the singlet state, with spin 0, are also examined; the latter state appears in same form when expressed in spin up/down along any Cartesian coordinate. The determination of one of the spins in an entangled singlet state immediately determines the other, resulting in a “spooky action at a distance.” Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) claimed to show, on the basis of local realism, that quantum mechanics must be incomplete because of this feature. Their logic suggests that one might explain the instantaneous results by invoking “hidden variables” not contained in a quantum treatment.