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Phase equilibria, phase changes, and mesophases: Analysis and simulation

ANGELO GAVEZZOTTI

in Molecular Aggregation: Structure analysis and molecular simulation of crystals and liquids

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570806
eISBN:
9780191718779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570806.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

All matter, from the simplest fluid such as gaseous helium to the most complex system like a biological cell, is made of electrons and nuclei. Electric potentials tend to glue the nuclei together, ... More


Liquid Crystals and Harmonic Maps in Polyhedral Domains

Apala Majumdar, Jonathan Robbins, and Maxim Zyskin

in Analysis and Stochastics of Growth Processes and Interface Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199239252
eISBN:
9780191716911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239252.003.0014
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Analysis

This chapter is concerned with harmonic maps from a polyhedron to the unit two-sphere, which provide a model of nematic liquid crystals in bistable displays. This chapter looks at the Dirichlet ... More


Scattered Origins, 1961–1968

Benjamin Gross

in The TVs of Tomorrow: How RCA's Flat-Screen Dreams Led to the First LCDs

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226519975
eISBN:
9780226540740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226540740.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes the origins of the liquid crystal display project at the David Sarnoff Research Center (DSRC). The discussion focuses on two members of RCA’s technical staff: physical chemist ... More


Lyotropic Systems: Main Experimental Facts And Techniques

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

in The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes the molecules and the molecular interactions associated with the self-assembling phenomena leading to the existence of lyotropic polymorphism. It includes the description of a ... More


The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Mixtures of surfactant or amphiphilic molecules and solvents are known to display a large number of lyotropic mesophases. Although the physics of thermotropic liquid crystals has been vastly ... More


Liquid-crystalline materials

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

A liquid crystal is a compound that exhibits simultaneously both solid and fluid properties. This unusual behavior confers unique optical and electrical properties, which are exploited in many ... More


Films, Ceramics, and Metastable Polarization

M. E. LINES and A. M. GLASS

in Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198507789
eISBN:
9780191709944
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507789.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The parallel alignment of dipoles in a ferroelectric is due primarily to a relatively strong long-range interaction along the polar c-axis and a weaker shorter-range interaction normal to the axis. ... More


Disruptive Displays, 1968–1971

Benjamin Gross

in The TVs of Tomorrow: How RCA's Flat-Screen Dreams Led to the First LCDs

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226519975
eISBN:
9780226540740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226540740.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Contrary to the optimistic predictions presented at its 1968 press conference, RCA’s dynamic scattering LCD prototypes were not ready for the marketplace. Liquid crystal display fabrication remained ... More


The Changing of the Guard, 1969–1976

Benjamin Gross

in The TVs of Tomorrow: How RCA's Flat-Screen Dreams Led to the First LCDs

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226519975
eISBN:
9780226540740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226540740.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In September 1971, Robert Sarnoff—David Sarnoff’s son and successor as chairman of RCA—announced plans to divest his company’s commercial computing operation. The resulting staff and budget cuts left ... More


Ferroelectric liquid crystals

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The origin of ferroelectricity in liquid crystals and the basic physical properties of the systems are briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to elementary excitations in ferroelectric liquid ... More


An Invisible Monument

Benjamin Gross

in The TVs of Tomorrow: How RCA's Flat-Screen Dreams Led to the First LCDs

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226519975
eISBN:
9780226540740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226540740.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Less than a decade after introducing the world to the LCD, RCA sold its liquid crystal operation to Timex. Today the company no longer exists, and its contributions to the flat-panel display industry ... More


SOFT MATTER

Vinod K. Wadhawan

in Smart Structures: Blurring the Distinction Between the Living and the Nonliving

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199229178
eISBN:
9780191711282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229178.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Soft matter is inherently nonlinear stuff, this is partly because of the pre-eminent role played by the hydrogen bond and the hydrophobic interaction in the processes involving soft materials. The ... More


Optical activity and enantiomorphism

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0032
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

When plane-polarized light enters a crystal it divides into right- and lefthanded circularly polarized waves. If the crystal possesses handedness, the two waves travel with different speeds, and ... More


Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

C. Michael Roland

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book describes the relaxation dynamics of rubbery materials, with the objective of providing a molecular basis for many physical properties. As the term comprises any amorphous, flexible ... More


The physics of polymers

Mark Geoghegan and Georges Hadziioannou

in Polymer Electronics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199533824
eISBN:
9780191774997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533824.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Polymers have connectivity between (usually) identical monomer units, and this connectivity gives rise to a rich physics, without even considering electronic properties. This chapter covers the ... More


Preamble

Mark Ladd

in Bonding, Structure and Solid-State Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198729945
eISBN:
9780191818783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729945.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Chapter 1 introduces material which is developed in later chapters as the main substance of the book. It includes discussions of the atomic nature of matter, states of matter, crystalline and ... More


Aggregation of surfactants in aqueous systems

Bob Aveyard

in Surfactants: In Solution, at Interfaces and in Colloidal Dispersions

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780198828600
eISBN:
9780191867125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828600.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Surfactants form micelles in aqueous solution above the critical micelle concentration (cmc); micelles are dynamic structures. Micellization is driven by the transfer of surfactant chains from water ... More


A World of Screens

Benjamin Gross

in The TVs of Tomorrow: How RCA's Flat-Screen Dreams Led to the First LCDs

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226519975
eISBN:
9780226540740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226540740.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book begins at the 1968 press conference where the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) announced the creation of the first liquid crystal displays and provided the earliest description of that ... More


What is soft matter?

Masao Doi

in Soft Matter Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199652952
eISBN:
9780191774942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652952.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Soft matter includes a large variety of materials, typically composed of polymers, colloids, surfactants, liquid crystals, and other mesoscopic constituents. This chapter addresses the question of ... More


MODELS OF MANY-CHAIN SYSTEMS

Glenn H. Fredrickson

in The Equilibrium Theory of Inhomogeneous Polymers

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567295
eISBN:
9780191717956
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567295.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses methods for converting the many body problem in interacting polymer fluids to a statistical field theory. Auxiliary field transforms are introduced, that decouple interactions ... More


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