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## Likelihood

*David F. Hendry*

### in Dynamic Econometrics

- Published in print:
- 1995
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198283164
- eISBN:
- 9780191596384
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198283164.003.0010
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The likelihood function is the obverse of the data‐density function, and summaries thereof lead to maximum likelihood estimation. The first derivative of the log‐likelihood, the score, plays a ... More

## How to Estimate Default Intensity Processes

*Darrell Duffie*

### in Measuring Corporate Default Risk

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- September 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199279234
- eISBN:
- 9780191728419
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279234.003.0003
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter presents the theory underlying the maximum likelihood estimation of term structures of survival probabilities, for example the dependence of default probability on time horizon. The ... More

## Maximum likelihood methods

*ZIHENG YANG*

### in Computational Molecular Evolution

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- April 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198567028
- eISBN:
- 9780191728280
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.003.0004
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses likelihood calculation for multiple sequences on a phylogenetic tree. As indicated at the end of Chapter 3, this is a natural extension to the parsimony method when we want to ... More

## Comparison of methods and tests on trees

*ZIHENG YANG*

### in Computational Molecular Evolution

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- April 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198567028
- eISBN:
- 9780191728280
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.003.0006
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses two problems: the evaluation of statistical properties of tree reconstruction methods and tests of the significance of estimated phylogenies. Section 6.1 discusses criteria for ... More

## Creating a Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model

*Donna Harrington*

### in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195339888
- eISBN:
- 9780199863662
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195339888.003.0002
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter focuses on creating and specifying a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model, beginning with the role of theory and prior research in CFA. It includes a detailed discussion of CFA model ... More

## Introduction to Regression Modeling Introduction to Regression Modeling

*John G. Orme and Terri Combs-Orme*

### in Multiple Regression with Discrete Dependent Variables

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- May 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195329452
- eISBN:
- 9780199864812
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329452.003.0001
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter is a brief review of some major concepts of linear regression, presented in the context of simple examples using both dichotomous and continuous independent variables. The chapter ... More

## Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

*M. Vidyasagar*

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691133157
- eISBN:
- 9781400850518
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. It starts from first principles, so that ... More

## Maximum Likelihood Approaches to Meta-analysis

*Kerrie Mengersen and Christopher H. Schmid*

### in Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution

- Published in print:
- 2013
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691137285
- eISBN:
- 9781400846184
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691137285.003.0010
- Subject:
- Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses an alternative, more general approach based on maximizing the likelihood of the data; that is, for a model with unknown parameters, finding the parameter values that are “most ... More

## Maximum Likelihood Estimation

*M. Hashem Pesaran*

### in Time Series and Panel Data Econometrics

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198736912
- eISBN:
- 9780191800504
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736912.003.0009
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

One important tool of estimation and hypothesis testing in econometrics is maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and the various testing procedures associated with it, namely, the likelihood ratio (LR), ... More

## Risks of Semi-Supervised Learning: How Unlabeled Data Can Degrade Performance of Generative Classifiers

*Cozman Fabio and Cohen Ira*

### in Semi-Supervised Learning

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- August 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780262033589
- eISBN:
- 9780262255899
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0004
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter presents a number of conclusions. Firstly, labeled and unlabeled data contribute to a reduction in variance in semi-supervised learning under maximum-likelihood estimation. Secondly, ... More

## Modeling Multisensory Integration

*Loes C. J. van Dam, Cesare V. Parise, and Marc O. Ernst*

### in Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- May 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780262027786
- eISBN:
- 9780262319270
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262027786.003.0010
- Subject:
- Philosophy, General

The different senses, such as vision, touch, or audition, often provide redundant information for perceiving our environment. For instance, the size of an object can be determined by both sight and ... More

## Inference, or how to deduce conclusions from data

*Odo Diekmann, Hans Heesterbeek, and Tom Britton*

### in Mathematical Tools for Understanding Infectious Disease Dynamics

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691155395
- eISBN:
- 9781400845620
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691155395.003.0005
- Subject:
- Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter describes methods for making inferences about key epidemiological parameters from available data. The chapter presents the powerful statistical method called maximum-likelihood (ML) ... More

## Data-driven modeling of hospital infections

*Odo Diekmann, Hans Heesterbeek, and Tom Britton*

### in Mathematical Tools for Understanding Infectious Disease Dynamics

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691155395
- eISBN:
- 9781400845620
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691155395.003.0014
- Subject:
- Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

The treatment of hospital patients suffering from bacterial infections is increasingly hampered by antibiotic resistance. When the means of curing infections diminish, the prevention of infection ... More

## Multivariate Rational Expectations Models

*M. Hashem Pesaran*

### in Time Series and Panel Data Econometrics

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198736912
- eISBN:
- 9780191800504
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736912.003.0020
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter is devoted to the solution, identification, and estimation of rational expectations (RE) models. It begins with an overview of solution techniques, distinguishing between RE models with ... More

## Background

*Adrian Schneider and Gina M. Cannarozzi*

### in Codon Evolution: Mechanisms and Models

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- May 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780199601165
- eISBN:
- 9780191810114
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199601165.003.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This background chapter summarizes some of the basic concepts used in molecular evolution, such as the use of Markov models in modelling sequence evolution as well as maximum-likelihood and Bayesian ... More

## Introduction

*Russell Cheng*

### in Non-Standard Parametric Statistical Inference

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- September 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198505044
- eISBN:
- 9780191746390
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198505044.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides an overview of the book. The book investigates non-standard parametric, mainly continuous univariate estimation problems. The basic difference between standard and non-standard ... More

## Spatial Panel Econometrics

*M. Hashem Pesaran*

### in Time Series and Panel Data Econometrics

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198736912
- eISBN:
- 9780191800504
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736912.003.0030
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter reviews econometric methods for linear panel data models that exhibit spatial dependence. The discussion covers spatial weights and the spatial lag operator, spatial dependence in ... More

## Prevalence data—models, likelihood, and binomial regression

*Bendix Carstensen*

### in Epidemiology with R

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- January 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198841326
- eISBN:
- 9780191876936
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198841326.003.0004
- Subject:
- Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines prevalence data, using a dataset which contains the number of diabetes patients and the total number of persons in Denmark as of January 1, 2010, classified by age and sex. ... More

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