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Seeing Black and White

Alan Gilchrist

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

How the human visual system determines the lightness of a surface, that is, its whiteness, blackness, or grayness, remains, like vision in general, a mystery. In fact, we have not been able to create ... More


Errors in Lightness

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter argues that the overall pattern of errors in human lightness perception offers a powerful method for identifying the kind of software used by the lightness system. In a systematic survey ... More


Theories of Lightness

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter outlines and critiques all the main theories of lightness, laying out the strengths and weaknesses of each. These include the past experience theories, contrast theories, brightness ... More


An Anchoring Model of Errors

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter offers a specific error-driven theory of lightness framed in terms of the rules of anchoring. The lightness model described in Gilchrist et al. (1999) is presented in more detail in this ... More


Concluding Thoughts

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter draws conclusions from the current evidence regarding lightness perception. It is argued that the twin assumptions of raw sensations and their cognitive interpretation have undermined ... More


The Katz Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The second distinct period of lightness work took place between 1911 and 1930. In the thirty-five years following Ewald Hering's Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, no important theoretical ... More


The Contrast Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Chronologically the fourth period of lightness theory, also known as the contrast period, extended from World War II until the end of the 1960s. Ideologically, however, it began at the end of the ... More


The Computational Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The end of the 1960s marked a new era in lightness perception. The shift from a contrast approach to a computational approach was part of a larger change taking place in psychology, a change that ... More


Illumination Perception

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter examines theoretical positions on the closely related question of perception of the illumination. An important theoretical question, closely related to the question of how well ... More


Introduction

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Color perception requires a distinction between both chromatic colors and achromatic colors. These are funny terms: the first is redundant, the second is an oxymoron — colored colors and non-colored ... More


The Classic Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Prior to the 19th century one can find references to the problem of lightness and color constancy, but no sustained experimental program. Most notable in this regard are the insightful writings of ... More


The Gestalt Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The third period of lightness theory saw the arrival of the Gestalt psychologists, with their penetrating insights and dramatic experiments. Rejecting the clumsy two-stage conception of raw ... More


Computational Models

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The computer revolution produced two quite different streams of work on lightness perception. These streams are represented by decomposition models and brightness models, respectively. Perhaps the ... More


The Anchoring Problem

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter deals with the essential but only recently recognized problem of anchoring in lightness perception. Previously, lightness theories had no anchoring rules and thus could predict only ... More


How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Nigel Daw

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This book covers all aspects of vision—the overall organization, lightness, color, motion, depth, objects and faces, control of eye movements, adaptation and aftereffects, attention, visual memory, ... More


Spatial Organization and the Appearances Thereof in Early Vision

Austen Clark

in Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199597277
eISBN:
9780191741883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199597277.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

The perception of the lightness of surfaces has been shown to be affected by information about the spatial configuration of those surfaces and their illuminants. Two regions of equal luminance can ... More


Constancy, Content, and Inference

David Hilbert

in Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199597277
eISBN:
9780191741883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199597277.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

The phenomenology of color constancy, with both illumination-dependent and illumination-independent elements, presents a challenge to both philosophy and vision science. There is considerable ... More


Brightness and Contrast

Nigel Daw

in How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

The lightness of an object is determined in relation to the objects around it. The overall illumination of the scene is ignored, and so are shadows falling across the object, and curvature of the ... More


Lightness and Eating Disorders

Simona Giordano

in Understanding Eating Disorders: Conceptual and Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199269747
eISBN:
9780191603129
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269742.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter draws on literary and artistic sources (Kundera, Dickinson, Giacometti, Modigliani, Sartre) to explain the value of lightness. It shows that the pursuit of lightness is not a ... More


The Value of Lightness

Simona Giordano

in Understanding Eating Disorders: Conceptual and Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199269747
eISBN:
9780191603129
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269742.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Lightness and fasting are often associated with positive feelings and with beauty. Arts, music, and literature testify the value that is attached to lightness in Western culture. Lightness and food ... More


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