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A Modern Conception of Death

Dan Bouk

in How Our Days Became Numbered: Risk and the Rise of the Statistical Individual

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226259178
eISBN:
9780226259208
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226259208.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter begins with Frederick Hoffman’s traditional, predictive risk making. It then considers how the disruption of the Armstrong investigations created an opportunity for reformers like Irving ... More


How Our Days Became Numbered: Risk and the Rise of the Statistical Individual

Dan Bouk

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226259178
eISBN:
9780226259208
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226259208.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book asks how the lives of individual Americans came to be understood through the statistical lens of risk between the Panic of 1873 and the Great Depression. It finds the answer in corporate ... More


The Threat to Human Identities from Too Much Enhancement

Nicholas Agar

in Truly Human Enhancement: A Philosophical Defense of Limits

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262026635
eISBN:
9780262318976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026635.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

As radical enhancement provides us with less valuable experiences it tends also to undermine the identities of those who undergo it. This undermining manifests as a threat to the connections of ... More


Valuing Lives, in Four Movements

Dan Bouk

in How Our Days Became Numbered: Risk and the Rise of the Statistical Individual

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226259178
eISBN:
9780226259208
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226259208.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter structures its narrative around a sales pitch written by the composer and insurance agent Charles Ives. Ives’ pitch used the science of traditional life insurance prediction to win over ... More


Prevention vs. Cure: An Economist’s Perspective on the Right Balance

Louise B. Russell

in Prevention vs. Treatment: What's the Right Balance?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199837373
eISBN:
9780199919499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199837373.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Three questions are addressed in this chapter: Does prevention reduce medical costs? Does the U.S. spend too little on prevention? Should it spend more (and if so, on what)? Since much of the ... More


Utilitarianism: In Real Life

Torbjörn Tännsjö

in Setting Health-Care Priorities: What Ethical Theories Tell Us

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190946883
eISBN:
9780190946913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190946883.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Utilitarianism (with or without a prioritarian amendment) is applied in real medical life. The general result, in relation to any welfare state assuming its global obligations, is that more resources ... More


Timothy Leary’s Transhumanist SMI2LE

W. Patrick McCray

in Groovy Science: Knowledge, Innovation, and American Counterculture

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226372884
eISBN:
9780226373072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226373072.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Following his release from prison in 1976, counterculture guru Timothy Leary began to espouse a new plan for experimentation if not human enhancement. SMI2LE was Leary’s moniker for “space migration, ... More


The Therapist—Aubrey de Grey’s Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence

Nicholas Agar

in Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014625
eISBN:
9780262289122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014625.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter describes some of the science behind the strategies for engineered negligible senescence (SENS). It argues that Aubrey de Grey has presented substantial arguments about how we might put ... More


1Evidence for Significant Compression of Morbidity in the Elderly US Population

David M. Cutler, Kaushik Ghosh, and Mary Beth Landrum

in Discoveries in the Economics of Aging

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780226146096
eISBN:
9780226146126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226146126.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The question of whether morbidity is being compressed into the period just before death has been at the center of health debates in the United States for some time. Compression of morbidity would ... More


Neutrality and Life Extension

Meghan Sullivan

in Time Biases: A Theory of Rational Planning and Personal Persistence

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198812845
eISBN:
9780191850639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812845.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter applies the theory of temporal neutrality to the Lazarus problem: the problem of explaining when (if ever) it is prudentially rational to prefer an afterlife (any period of extended ... More


The Maximin/Leximin Theory: In Real Life

Torbjörn Tännsjö

in Setting Health-Care Priorities: What Ethical Theories Tell Us

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190946883
eISBN:
9780190946913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190946883.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The maximin/leximin theory is applied in real medical life. The general result, in relation to any welfare state assuming its global obligations, is that more resources ought to be directed to the ... More


Setting Health-Care Priorities: What Ethical Theories Tell Us

Torbjörn Tännsjö

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190946883
eISBN:
9780190946913
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190946883.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The three most promising theories of distributive ethics are presented: Utilitarianism, with or without a prioritarian amendment. The maximin/leximin theory. Egalitarianism. Utilitarianism urges us ... More


The Philosopher—Nick Bostrom on the Morality of Enhancement

Nicholas Agar

in Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014625
eISBN:
9780262289122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014625.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The main critical focus in this chapter will be Bostrom’s claim that human values are tacitly posthuman. Bostrom defends radical enhancement from two perspectives. First, he claims that many ... More


AI: Artificial Immortality and Narratives of Mind Uploading

Stephen Cave

in AI Narratives: A History of Imaginative Thinking about Intelligent Machines

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198846666
eISBN:
9780191881817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198846666.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

AI promises to be a master technology that can solve any problem—including the problem of death. There are two main contemporary narratives describing how AI might achieve this: cyborgization and ... More


Can We Reverse Course on Health?

Michael D. Stein and Sandro Galea

in Pained: Uncomfortable Conversations about the Public's Health

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780197510384
eISBN:
9780197510414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197510384.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter examines whether the United States can catch up to other countries when it comes to promoting health. A 2018 paper published in the American Journal of Public Health suggests we cannot; ... More


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