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Concluding observations, with steps toward neuroscience

Nelson Cowan

in Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195119107
eISBN:
9780199870097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119107.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The chapter emphasizes a level of analysis at which subdivisions are avoided until shown to be fundamental. It helps especially in investigations of short-term memory, selective attention, and the ... More


Weighing the Butter, Levels of Explanation, and Falsification: Models of the Conventional in Tsongkhapa’s Account of Madhyamaka

Guy Martin Newland

in Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199751426
eISBN:
9780199827190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751426.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

Emptiness is understood via analysis interrogating how things ultimately exist––usually leaving the conventional as nonanalytical. However, for Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), knowledge arising from ... More


Gender, Network Capital, Social Capital, and Political Capital: The Consequences of Personal Network Diversity for Environmentalists in British Columbia 1

D. B. Tindall and Jeffrey J. Cormier

in Social Capital: An International Research Program

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199234387
eISBN:
9780191740619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234387.003.0123
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter studies the complicated relationship between gender, political participation, and social capital. It considers the role of gender in structuring the availability and accessibility of ... More


Commentary on Section II: Bringing Multiple Levels of Analysis to Bear on Evolution Teaching and Learning

Sarah K. Brem and Gale M. Sinatra

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter summarizes the content of the chapters from the second half of the book. It is suggested that it is important to consider how multiple levels of analysis might lead to more effective ... More


Concluding remarks

Janette Atkinson

in The Developing Visual Brain

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198525998
eISBN:
9780191712395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525998.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter summarizes the neuroscientific model of visual development that emerges from the work discussed in the book, including the role of dorsal and ventral cortical streams, and considers ... More


States are not People: State Theory and IR

Marjo Koivisto

in Normative State Power in International Relations

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199652792
eISBN:
9780191745270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652792.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter argues that IR scholars interested in global normative transformations should better theorise institutional forms. In result of methodological choices made in research design, it is ... More


What Is Consciousness? Neurofunctionalism

Jesse J. Prinz

in The Conscious Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195314595
eISBN:
9780199979059
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314595.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Physicalists have traditionally offered two different responses to the mind-body problem. Some endorse the psychophysical identity theory, and some endorse functionalism. These two approaches are ... More


Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Intra-Industry Trade

Cameron G. Thies and Timothy M. Peterson

in Intra-Industry Trade: Cooperation and Conflict in the Global Political Economy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780804791335
eISBN:
9780804797207
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804791335.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses the several challenges associated with measuring intra-industry trade. The argument is advanced in favor of using the bilateral, two-way trade of commodities at the Standard ... More


Introduction

Marybeth Shinn and Hirokazu Yoshikawa

in Toward Positive Youth Development: Transforming Schools and Community Programs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195327892
eISBN:
9780199301478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327892.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Child Psychology / School Psychology

This chapter introduces ways that social researchers can transform youth-serving settings in order to promote positive youth development. Interventions can occur at multiple levels, ranging from ... More


Neuroscience Overview

Patricia S. Churchland and Terrence J. Sejnowski

in The Computational Brain

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262533393
eISBN:
9780262339650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262533393.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter provides an overview of the “neuroscience” component of the “computational neuroscience” synergy. It begins with a discussion of three ideas about levels in nervous systems: levels of ... More


Inevitability and War

Joseph S. Nye

in The Next Great War?: The Roots of World War I and the Risk of U.S.-China Conflict

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028998
eISBN:
9780262326773
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028998.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

War was not inevitable in 1914 nor is it today. In 1914, however, peace was threatened by the inflexibility of alliances, the rise of nationalism, and Social Darwinism. Counterfactually in 1914, ... More


The Biology of Personality

Aurelio José Figueredo, W. Jake Jacobs, Sarah B. Burger, Paul R. Gladden, and Sally G. Olderbak

in Information and Living Systems: Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262201742
eISBN:
9780262295246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262201742.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the multiple and complementary levels of analysis in which the biology of personality can be described, namely, descriptive, behavioral-genetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, ... More


Dimensions of Cultural Variation

Peter B. Smith

in The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190679743
eISBN:
9780190679774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190679743.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

To understand cultural differences, we need to find ways to characterize the variations in the social contexts in which people are located. To do so, we must focus on differences between contexts ... More


Individuals in International Relations

Peter Hägel

in Billionaires in World Politics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198852711
eISBN:
9780191887079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198852711.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Economy

Chapter 2 reviews how International Relations (IR) scholarship has been treating individual agency, especially within the dominant theoretical frameworks, Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism. ... More


Foreign Policy Reversal: The Politics of Sri Lanka's Economic Relations with India

Rajesh M. Basrur

in International Relations Theory and South Asia: Security, Political Economy, Domestic Politics, Identities, and Images Vol. 1

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780198069652
eISBN:
9780199082742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069652.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses the general problem of policy reversal through the analysis of a specific issue: the change in Sri Lanka’s policy orientation toward India from the mid-1990s onward. It argues ... More


American Foreign Policy towards India and Pakistan, 1993–2008: A Decision-making Approach

K.P. Vijayalakshmi

in International Relations Theory and South Asia: Security, Political Economy, Domestic Politics, Identities, and Images, Vol. 2

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780198070801
eISBN:
9780199082759
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070801.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter posits that understanding the determinants of US policy for the region is vital for theorizing South Asian security. It argues that structural realist explanations do not adequately ... More


Introduction

Itty Abraham

in How India Became Territorial: Foreign Policy, Diaspora, Geopolitics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780804791632
eISBN:
9780804792684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804791632.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The Introduction fulfills three objectives. It first argues for the incorporation of concepts and insights from geography into international relations, particularly, the replacement of “levels of ... More


Formal Models

Erik D. Reichle

in Computational Models of Reading: A Handbook

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780195370669
eISBN:
9780190853822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195370669.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter introduces formal models of cognition and explains how they are similar to verbal theories but use computer programs and mathematics to avoid the many limitations of human reasoning, ... More


Circulations of Affect in Global Politics

Andrew A. G. Ross

in Mixed Emotions: Beyond Fear and Hatred in International Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226077390
eISBN:
9780226077567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226077567.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter reconceptualizes emotions as social phenomena, explaining how affect circulates through individual bodies in the context of social interaction. This work draws from microsociological ... More


Cross-Level Dynamics

Barbara Gray and Jill Purdy

in Collaborating for Our Future: Multistakeholder Partnerships for Solving Complex Problems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198782841
eISBN:
9780191826030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782841.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies, Strategy

To adequately characterize partnerships, we need to view them as cross-level phenomena (i.e. involving partners from different geographical or jurisdictional levels) because agreements that make ... More


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