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What are things made of?

A. J. Leggett

in The Problems of Physics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211241
eISBN:
9780191706837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211241.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines the questions why one learns more about the structure of matter at the subatomic level by accelerating particles to high energies, and what it means to say that a new particle ... More


The Parliament of 1621: Business as Usual?

Conrad Russell

in Parliaments and English Politics 1621–1629

Published in print:
1979
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198224822
eISBN:
9780191678578
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198224822.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Political History

During the first sessions of the Parliament of 1621, the chief concerns of the members of the court were three things that never happened: with waiting for, and lobbying for or against, war that ... More


Quantum Chromodynamics: High Energy Experiments and Theory

Günther Dissertori, Ian G. Knowles, and Michael Schmelling

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199566419
eISBN:
9780191708060
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566419.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book provides an introduction to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions. It covers in full detail both the theoretical foundations and the experimental tests of the ... More


Momentum Space Topology Protected By Symmetry

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

In some fermionic systems the total topological charge of the Fermi point vanishes. However, the discrete symmetry may produce the nonzero p-space topological invariant, which protects the nodal ... More


Structure Functions And Parton Distributions

GÜNTHER DISSERTORI, IAN G. KNOWLES, and MICHAEL SCHMELLING

in Quantum Chromodynamics: High Energy Experiments and Theory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199566419
eISBN:
9780191708060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566419.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter presents the determination of structure functions and parton distributions from deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, both for the case of charged lepton-nucleon and the case of ... More


Concepts of Elementary Particle Physics

Michael E. Peskin

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198812180
eISBN:
9780191850301
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812180.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This is a textbook of elementary particle physics whose goal is to explain the Standard Model of particle interactions. Part I introduces the basic concepts governing high-energy particle physics: ... More


Particle Physics in the LHC Era

Giles Barr, Robin Devenish, Roman Walczak, and Tony Weidberg

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748557
eISBN:
9780191811203
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book gives a modern introduction to particle physics. The main mathematical tools required for the rest of the book are developed in Chapter 2. A quantitative introduction to accelerator physics ... More


Everything So Far

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Introduces the concepts of fermions, bosons, leptons, and hadrons, while summarizing the elementary particles encountered so far in previous chapters. To all these objects we will come back later, ... More


Atoms of Matter and Energy

Demetris Nicolaides

in In Search of a Theory of Everything: The Philosophy Behind Physics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190098353
eISBN:
9780190098384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098353.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Perhaps the greatest scientific achievement of antiquity, possibly of all time, was the realization of the atomic nature of matter. “There are but atoms and the void,” Democritus proposed. And he ... More


Cosmic Justice

Demetris Nicolaides

in In Search of a Theory of Everything: The Philosophy Behind Physics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190098353
eISBN:
9780190098384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098353.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Anaximander thought water is a bad idea for a primary substance of the universe because it’s not neutral—it has an opposite, fire. And opposites destroy; they don’t generate one another. If ... More


A Users' Paradise, 1968–1978

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses Robert R. Wilson's vision for the National Accelerator Laboratory to become a user's paradise. His vision called for a balance of responsibilities that Wilson envisioned ... More


Particle physics I

Ian R. Kenyon

in Quantum 20/20: Fundamentals, Entanglement, Gauge Fields, Condensates and Topology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198808350
eISBN:
9780191846052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808350.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Particle families (quarks and leptons), their properties and their interactions are introduced. The exchange mechanism and the Yukawa potential are discussed. Natural units are explained. The ... More


Radioactive Methods

Norman Herz and Ervan G. Garrison

in Geological Methods for Archaeology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195090246
eISBN:
9780197560631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195090246.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Archaeological Methodology and Techniques

Radioactive decay can best be explained by accepted models of atomic or microscopic structure. By the mid 20th century most people understood that the atom was the smallest particle to which a ... More


The W and Z Bosons

Michael E. Peskin

in Concepts of Elementary Particle Physics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198812180
eISBN:
9780191850301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812180.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes the predictions of the gauge theory model of the weak interaction for the production and decay of the W and Z bosons, and the comparison of these predictions to experiment. It ... More


A Problem of Mass

John Iliopoulos

in The Origin of Mass: Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198805175
eISBN:
9780191843259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805175.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

This chapter examines the constraints coming from the symmetry properties of the fundamental interactions on the possible values of the masses of elementary particles. We first establish a relation ... More


Introduction

G. Barr, R. Devenish, R. Walczak, and T. Weidberg

in Particle Physics in the LHC Era

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748557
eISBN:
9780191811203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts with a few words about the reader’s expected prior knowledge of subatomic physics and quantum mechanics. It is made clear that while relativistic quantum mechanics is introduced ... More


The Standard Model (SM) of fundamental interactions

Jean Zinn-Justin

in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena: Fifth Edition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780198834625
eISBN:
9780191872723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834625.003.0023
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The Standard Model (SM) 2020 of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, based on gauge symmetry and spontaneous symmetry breaking, describes all known fundamental interactions at the ... More


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