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Inferences from Phenomena (Propositions 1 and 2 Book 3)

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter reviews Newton’s definitions with emphasis on his theoretical concept of a centripetal force. It reviews his treatment of time, space, motion, Laws of Motion and their corollaries, ... More


Kant's Justification of the Laws of Mechanics

Eric Watkins

in Kant and the Sciences

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195133059
eISBN:
9780199786169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195133056.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This paper notes a number of differences between Newton’s formulations of the laws of motion and Kant’s formulations of the laws of mechanics, and then argues that these differences are not ... More


Force and mass

Louis A. Girifalco

in The Universal Force: Gravity - Creator of Worlds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228966
eISBN:
9780191711183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228966.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Modern science could not advance until the ideas of force and mass were understood. Newton provided this understanding by stressing the role of momentum and by creating his three laws of motion. But ... More


The fundamental law

JESPER LÜTZEN

in Mechanistic Images in Geometric Form: Heinrich Hertz's 'Principles of Mechanics'

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567370
eISBN:
9780191717925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567370.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

In the usual Newtonian-Laplacian image, Isaac Newton's three laws of motion are often taken as the basic ones. Heinrich Hertz, on the other hand, formulated one and only one law of motion: that every ... More


The laws

Louis A. Girifalco

in The Universal Force: Gravity - Creator of Worlds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228966
eISBN:
9780191711183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228966.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The law of gravitation could not be proved and could not be applied unless the basic laws of motion were understood. Newton realized this and in an amazing intellectual tour de force, he formulated ... More


The principles of mechanics before Hertz

JESPER LÜTZEN

in Mechanistic Images in Geometric Form: Heinrich Hertz's 'Principles of Mechanics'

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567370
eISBN:
9780191717925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567370.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The period until 1860 saw a steady flow of interesting new theoretical discoveries in mechanics, even in the area of mechanics of systems of finitely many mass points. Moreover, there was a continued ... More


Laws of Motion

Emily R. Grosholz

in Cartesian Method and the Problem of Reduction

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242505
eISBN:
9780191680502
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242505.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter reviews Descartes's laws of motion. It examines the consequences of the evanescent, unstable unity of Descartes's physical simples in the ... More


‘the flush and foredrawn’

Daniel Brown

in Hopkins' Idealism: Philosophy, Physics, Poetry

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198183532
eISBN:
9780191674051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198183532.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, Poetry, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter examines the scientific basis of English poet Gerald Manley Hopkins' analogy in his works. Hopkins believed that the fundamental laws of motion provide the forms which serve to represent ... More


Basic Dynamics of Point Particles and Collections

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Modern mechanics begins with the publication in 1687 of Isaac Newton’s Principia, in which he explains mathematically the motions of planets, moons, comets, and tides in what is now known as the ... More


A Commotion over Motion

David S. Sytsma

in Richard Baxter and the Mechanical Philosophers

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190274870
eISBN:
9780190274894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274870.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter addresses Baxter’s response to Copernicanism, substantial forms, Descartes’s laws of motion, and Henry More’s variant of mechanical philosophy. Baxter was far more concerned about ... More


Early Modern Period

Don S. Lemons

in Drawing Physics: 2,600 Years of Discovery From Thales to Higgs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035903
eISBN:
9780262338745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035903.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The early modern period (1543-1785) contributed many physical concepts that are simple enough to be conveyed with a diagram. Copernicus’s heliocentric universe (1543), Galileo’s discovery of the ... More


The Role of the State  

Andrew Stewart Skinner

in A System of Social Science: Papers Relating to Adam Smith

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233343
eISBN:
9780191678974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233343.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Adam Smith's contribution to the field of political economy was designed to explain the working of a set of institutional arrangements that he regarded as the last of four stages of economic ... More


Optimal Resource Allocations

Lars Peter Hansen and Thomas J. Sargent

in Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691042770
eISBN:
9781400848188
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691042770.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter describes a planning problem that generates competitive equilibrium allocations and compares two methods for solving it. The first method uses state- and date-contingent Lagrange ... More


Gunnar Johansson, Events, and Biological Motion

James E. Cutting

in People Watching: Social, Perceptual, and Neurophysiological Studies of Body Perception

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195393705
eISBN:
9780199979271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393705.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

In 1973, Gunnar Johansson launched the systematic study of the perception of the human body in motion. Merging his applied interests in traffic safety and his theoretical interests in vector analysis ... More


ISAAC NEWTON: RATIONALISING THE UNIVERSE

I.S. GLASS

in Revolutionaries of the Cosmos: The Astro-Physicists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199550258
eISBN:
9780191718700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550258.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter begins by discussing Isaac Newton's biography and private life. It notes some of Newton's traits, which allowed him to face all the hurdles that came his way. It investigates how he ... More


Economic Environments

Lars Peter Hansen and Thomas J. Sargent

in Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691042770
eISBN:
9781400848188
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691042770.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter describes an economic environment with five components: a sequence of information sets, laws of motion for taste and technology shocks, a technology for producing consumption goods, a ... More


Relativistic Mechanics

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

It was apparent from its beginning that special relativity developed as the invariance theory of electrodynamics would require a modification of Newton’s three laws of motion. This chapter discusses ... More


Laws of Nature and the Divine Order of Things: Descartes and Newton on Truth in Natural Philosophy

Mary Domski

in Laws of Nature

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198746775
eISBN:
9780191809057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746775.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines the different ways in which Descartes and Newton balance their claim that laws of nature are true of the natural world with their commitment to our human inability to fully ... More


Distinguishing between animates and inanimates: not by motion alone

Rochel Gelman, Frank Durgin, and Lisa Kaufman

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents an account of the origins and development of one's ability to classify moveable entities as either animate or inanimate. The account builds on the known abilities of young ... More


A New World Order

Danielle Macbeth

in Realizing Reason: A Narrative of Truth and Knowing

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780198704751
eISBN:
9780191774232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704751.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In the seventeenth century, Descartes transformed the practice of mathematics by introducing his symbolic language within which to formulate mathematical ideas, such as that of a circle or that of a ... More


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