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The Contrast Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Chronologically the fourth period of lightness theory, also known as the contrast period, extended from World War II until the end of the 1960s. Ideologically, however, it began at the end of the ... More


Forming a Sensory Image

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neurogastronomy: How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159111
eISBN:
9780231530316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159111.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter examines how the brain represents our sensory world in order to serve as the basis for perception. It is hypothesized that by studying the neural mechanisms for setting up and processing ... More


Orthonasal Smell: Creating a Wine Aroma Image

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neuroenology: How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231177009
eISBN:
9780231542876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231177009.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The brain creates the aroma perception through a series of steps, through the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex and to the highest levels in our frontal lobes. It first represents the aroma ... More


Changing the Chevreul Illusion by a Background Luminance Ramp

János Geier and Mariann Hudák

in The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199794607
eISBN:
9780190654795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0044
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

The Chevreul illusion comprises adjacent homogeneous grey bands of different luminance, which are perceived as inhomogeneous. It is generally explained by lateral inhibition. When the Chevreul ... More


The Reversed Contrast Necker Cube

Alessandra Galmonte and Tiziano Agostini

in The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199794607
eISBN:
9780190654795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0043
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

Agostini and Galmonte reported a configuration showing that when grouping factors are optimized, a grey target totally surrounded by black appears darker than an equal grey target totally surrounded ... More


The Winner Takes It All: How Decisions Emerge

Thomas Boraud

in How the Brain Makes Decisions

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198824367
eISBN:
9780191863202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824367.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter reviews the general principles that are necessary for a neural system to make decisions. A glance at the literature shows that the simplest system to obtain an imbalance between two ... More


Sight: Creating the Color of Wine

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neuroenology: How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231177009
eISBN:
9780231542876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231177009.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

We explain how light stimuli are transformed into responses of blue, green and red receptors in the retina, then how the visual pathway contains circuits that enhance contrast between different ... More


Orthonasal Smell: From Odor Image to Aroma Perception

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neuroenology: How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231177009
eISBN:
9780231542876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231177009.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The olfactory cortex is a pattern recognizer, changing the image from a sensory representation to an internal “sensory object”. In this state it represents individual components of the aroma ... More


Blind Spots and Shortcuts

Philippe Rochat

in Moral Acrobatics: How We Avoid Ethical Ambiguity by Thinking in Black and White

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780190057657
eISBN:
9780190057688
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190057657.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Much of our awareness about the world is the product of obligatory illusions, particularly in the moral domain, a minefield of implicit biases, obligatory blind spots, “connecting the dots” ... More


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