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## Measuring latent causal structure

*Ricardo Silva*

### in Causality in the Sciences

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- September 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199574131
- eISBN:
- 9780191728921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0032
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

The presence of latent variables makes the task of estimating causal effects difficult. In particular, it might not even be possible to record important variables without measurement error, a common ... More

## Qualitative Response Models

*Bernt P. Stigum*

### in Econometrics in a Formal Science of Economics: Theory and the Measurement of Economic Relations

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- September 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780262028585
- eISBN:
- 9780262323109
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262028585.003.0004
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Chapter IV discusseseconometric analyses of qualitative response models. A qualitative response model is an econometric modelin which the dependent variable is either discrete or half continuous and ... More

## Latent Variable Models for Analyzing DNA Methylation

*E. Andrés Houseman*

### in Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- December 2014
- ISBN:
- 9780198709022
- eISBN:
- 9780191779619
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.003.0015
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is tightly linked with cellular differentiation. For instance, it has been observed that DNA methylation in tumor cells encodes phenotypic information about ... More

## Longitudinal Measurement (Non)Invariance in Latent Constructs: Conceptual Insights, Model Specifications, and Testing Strategies

*Heinz Leitgöb, Daniel Seddig, Peter Schmidt, Edward Sosu, and Eldad Davidov*

### in Measurement Error in Longitudinal Data

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- May 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198859987
- eISBN:
- 9780191892448
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198859987.003.0010
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Analysis, Applied Mathematics

The chapter discusses the basic principles and core problems of latent variable panel modelling, with a focus on the specification of error structures and (the evaluation of) longitudinal measurement ... More

## Measurement Error in Longitudinal Data

*Alexandru Cernat and Joseph W. Sakshaug (eds)*

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- May 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198859987
- eISBN:
- 9780191892448
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198859987.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Analysis, Applied Mathematics

Understanding change is essential in most scientific fields. This is highlighted by the importance of issues such as shifts in public health and changes in public opinion regarding politicians and ... More

## Expectation propagation

*Manfred Opper*

### in Statistical Physics, Optimization, Inference, and Message-Passing Algorithms: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics: Special Issue, October 2013

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198743736
- eISBN:
- 9780191803802
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198743736.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Variational inference is a powerful concept that underlies many iterative approximation algorithms: expectation propagation, mean-field methods, belief propagation, and TAP equations can all be ... More

## Regime Deinstitutionalization

*Alexander Baturo and Johan A. Elkink*

### in The New Kremlinology: Understanding Regime Personalization in Russia

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- October 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780192896193
- eISBN:
- 9780191918674
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780192896193.003.0004
- Subject:
- Political Science, Russian Politics, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the process of deinstitutionalisation and the dynamics of dismissals and rotations in the inner circle of the Russian regime. The existence of institutions designed to manage ... More

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