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## Measuring latent causal structure

*Ricardo Silva*

### in Causality in the Sciences

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- September 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199574131
- eISBN:
- 9780191728921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0032
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

The presence of latent variables makes the task of estimating causal effects difficult. In particular, it might not even be possible to record important variables without measurement error, a common ... More

## Qualitative Response Models

*Bernt P. Stigum*

### in Econometrics in a Formal Science of Economics: Theory and the Measurement of Economic Relations

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- September 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780262028585
- eISBN:
- 9780262323109
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262028585.003.0004
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Chapter IV discusseseconometric analyses of qualitative response models. A qualitative response model is an econometric modelin which the dependent variable is either discrete or half continuous and ... More

## Latent Variable Models for Analyzing DNA Methylation

*E. Andrés Houseman*

### in Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- December 2014
- ISBN:
- 9780198709022
- eISBN:
- 9780191779619
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.003.0015
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is tightly linked with cellular differentiation. For instance, it has been observed that DNA methylation in tumor cells encodes phenotypic information about ... More

## Expectation propagation

*Manfred Opper*

### in Statistical Physics, Optimization, Inference, and Message-Passing Algorithms: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics: Special Issue, October 2013

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198743736
- eISBN:
- 9780191803802
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198743736.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Variational inference is a powerful concept that underlies many iterative approximation algorithms: expectation propagation, mean-field methods, belief propagation, and TAP equations can all be ... More

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