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Phase transitions

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0028
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on phase transitions, discussing latent heat and deriving the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. It discusses the criteria for stability and metastability, and derives the Gibbs phase ... More


The Discovery of Latent and Specific Heats

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Black and also Wilcke discovered latent and specific heat (Black was helped by Fahrenheit’s earlier researches.) Black improved on the ‘method of mixtures’ (already used by Brook Taylor) and defined ... More


Modelling Coupled Transport

Marco Bittelli, Gaylon S. Campbell, and Fausto Tomei

in Soil Physics with Python: Transport in the Soil–Plant–Atmosphere System

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199683093
eISBN:
9780191763175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683093.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter describes a coupled model for heat, liquid water and vapour flow, as encountered in real soils, in contrast to the previous chapters, where gas, heat, liquid water and vapour flows were ... More


Phase change

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The general topic of phase change is discussed. First-order and continuous phase changes are defined, and the former expounded more fully. Example phase diagrams are given, and entropy and volume ... More


Phase Transitions

Jochen Rau

in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics: An Introduction to Key Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199595068
eISBN:
9780191844300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595068.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

At a phase transition two or more different phases may coexist, such as vapour and liquid. Phase transitions can be classified according to their order. A phase transition is of first order if going ... More


Thermodynamics: Heat, Temperature and Humidification

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0012
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

In continuing the concepts of energy and work, heat is a form of energy, and heat and work are related by the laws of thermodynamics. The first law states that the amount of mechanical work ... More


Joseph Black and the rise of heat capacity

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

By developing the science of calorimetry and the doctrines of sensible and latent heats, Joseph Black separated temperature from heat. Subsequent research by others on the concept of heat capacity ... More


Some general knowledge

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A survey of some thermal properties of ordinary substances is given, with some related definitions and constants. The densities and heat capacities of ordinary substances are summarized. The mole, ... More


Drying

Roger G. Harrison, Paul W. Todd, Scott R. Rudge, and Demetri P. Petrides

in Bioseparations Science and Engineering

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195391817
eISBN:
9780197562765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195391817.003.0014
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The last step in the separation process for a biological product is usually drying, which is the process of thermally removing volatile substances (often water) to yield a solid. In the step ... More


The Scheil Equation: Solidification

Brian Cantor

in The Equations of Materials

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851875
eISBN:
9780191886683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851875.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Many materials are manufactured by solidification, either as a final product by casting, or as an intermediate ingot or bar. The Scheil equation describes the partitioning that takes place during ... More


Phase Transitions

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198853237
eISBN:
9780191887703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853237.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Phase transitions are introduced using the van der Waals gas as an example. The equations of state are derived from the Helmholtz free energy of the ideal gas. The behavior of this model is analyzed, ... More


Climate Feedbacks in the Alaskan Boreal Forest

F. Stuart Chapin III and A. David McGuire

in Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154313
eISBN:
9780197561928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154313.003.0026
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

The boreal forest biome occupies an area of 18.5 million km2, which is approximately 14% of the vegetated cover of the earth’s surface (McGuire et al. 1995b). North of 50°N, terrestrial ... More


Watershed Hydrology and Chemistry in the Alaskan Boreal Forest: The Central Role of Permafrost

Larry D. Hinzman and Kevin C. Petrone

in Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154313
eISBN:
9780197561928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154313.003.0023
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Hydrological processes exert strong control over biological and climatic processes in every ecosystem. They are particularly important in the boreal zone, where the average annual temperatures of ... More


Classical Kinetic Theory

Klaus Morawetz

in Interacting Systems far from Equilibrium: Quantum Kinetic Theory

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198797241
eISBN:
9780191838743
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797241.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The classical non-ideal gas shows that the two original concepts of the pressure based of the motion and the forces have eventually developed into drift and dissipation contributions. Collisions of ... More


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