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Discovering Agents and Agent Behaviors

Michael J. North and Charles M. Macal

in Managing Business Complexity: Discovering Strategic Solutions with Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172119
eISBN:
9780199789894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172119.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

This chapter details how to find and document the agent behaviors in systems including the use of knowledge engineering and the Unified Modeling Language (UML).


Introduction

CAROL MYERS-SCOTTON

in Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198299530
eISBN:
9780191708107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter introduces three models applying to contact phenomena, as well as a psycholinguistic model of language production. The Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model is specific to codeswitching; the ... More


Virtual Reality, Relative Accuracy: Modelling Architecture and Sculpture with VRML

Michael Greenhalgh

in Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262962
eISBN:
9780191734533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262962.003.0006
Subject:
Archaeology, Archaeological Methodology and Techniques

This chapter evaluates current possibilities for the attainment of a realistic context over the web by attempting to match the basic requirements of art history scholarship and teaching against what ... More


Language at 12 and 18 Months: Characteristics and Accessibility of Linguistic Models

Patricia E. Spencer

in The World of Deaf Infants: A Longitudinal Study

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195147902
eISBN:
9780199893775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195147902.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Clinical Child Psychology / School Psychology

This chapter focuses on children's language acquisition in relation to the language models provided by their mothers. All of the deaf children considered in this chapter had their hearing loss ... More


Hidden Texture

Andrea Moro

in The Boundaries of Babel: The Brain and the Enigma of Impossible Languages

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262134989
eISBN:
9780262280204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262134989.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This chapter starts by addressing methodological issues as applied to linguistics, which include simplicity, errors, and formalism. It then introduces some fundamental aspects of human languages. The ... More


A Statistical Machine Translation Primer

Nicola Cancedda, Marc Dymetman, George Foster, and Cyril Goutte

in Learning Machine Translation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262072977
eISBN:
9780262255097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262072977.003.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter provides an introduction to the main aspects of statistical machine translation (SMT). The discussions cover automatic evaluation of machine translation output, language modeling, ... More


The Early Middle Ages and the Christianization of Europe

John Marenbon

in Pagans and Philosophers: The Problem of Paganism from Augustine to Leibniz

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691142555
eISBN:
9781400866359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691142555.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter looks at the ease with which the ancient pagan culture was adopted and adapted to fit into a Christian world (without in many cases being actually Christianized) during the Early Middle ... More


Local Language Ideologies and Language Revitalization among the Sumu-Mayangna Indians of Nicaragua’s Caribbean Coast Region

Jane Freeland, Eloy Frank Gómez, Gloria Fenly, and Stringham Montero Cisneros

in Endangered Languages: Beliefs and Ideologies in Language Documentation and Revitalization

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780197265765
eISBN:
9780191771958
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265765.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

Through contrastive case studies, this chapter shows how language ideologies can vary not only between but within ethnic groups. It discusses implications for current models of language shift and ... More


Englishes in Tristan da Cunha, St Helena, Bermuda and the Falkland Islands: PCE, non-PCE or both? Blurred Boundaries in the Atlantic

Daniel Schreier

in Modelling World Englishes: A Joint Approach to Postcolonial and Non-Postcolonial Varieties

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781474445863
eISBN:
9781474490771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474445863.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

This chapter looks at the interplay of extra- and intra-territorial forces that shaped the evolution and sociolinguistic characteristics of four varieties of English spoken in the Atlantic Ocean: the ... More


Statistical Language Processing for Text Entry

Per Ola Kristensson

in Computational Interaction

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198799603
eISBN:
9780191839832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799603.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

In this chapter we explain how methods from statistical language processing serve as a foundation for the design of probabilistic text entry methods and error correction methods. We review concepts ... More


Land and people, language and language planning

Ernst Håkon Jahr

in Language Planning as a Sociolinguistic Experiment: The Case of Modern Norwegian

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780748637829
eISBN:
9781474400855
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748637829.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

The first chapter forms the introduction to the book. Modern Norway stands out linguistically as unique in the European context. First, it has for more than a century maintained two written standards ... More


Clark on Language, Cognition, and Extended Cognition

Kenneth Aizawa

in Andy Clark and His Critics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190662813
eISBN:
9780190662844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662813.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Some years ago, Clark broached a complementarian model of language, in contrast to a more traditional translation model, which he then linked to the hypothesis of extended cognition. This chapter’s ... More


Constituents of National Literature

Anne McKnight

in Nakagami, Japan: Buraku and the Writing of Ethnicity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816672851
eISBN:
9781452947327
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816672851.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, World Literature

This chapter illustrates how Nakagami modeled after writer William Faulkner in affirming the presence and literary absence of a Japanese “South,” and then reformulating this Japanese South into ... More


The Body as a Canvas: Developing a Deaf Bodily Habitus in Deaf Signing Preschools

Patrick J. Graham and Joseph J. Tobin

in Deaf Identities: Exploring New Frontiers

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780190887599
eISBN:
9780190091989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190887599.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology

The authors of this chapter, one deaf and one hearing, are educational anthropologists who explore how deaf bodies become social agents that mediate the spaces around them. They describe their ... More


Definitions—Background

Pierre-Loïc Garoche

in Formal Verification of Control System Software

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780691181301
eISBN:
9780691189581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181301.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This chapter presents the formalisms describing discrete dynamical systems and gives an overview on the convex optimization tools and methods used to compute the analyses. A dynamical system is a ... More


The A-project and the B-project

Mark Richard

in Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198801856
eISBN:
9780191840418
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198801856.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Ameliorative philosophical analysis elucidates a concept by looking at the purposes it has for its users. It evaluates them, and gives an analysis on the basis of the purposes the analyst thinks ... More


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