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Direct and Indirect Treatments

Diana C. Mutz

in Population-Based Survey Experiments

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter describes direct and indirect treatments, that is, treatments that either directly and overtly try to move the respondent in a particular direction, or that indirectly do so in a more ... More


Theory and Practice: Starkey's Laboratory Methodology

in Alchemy Tried in the Fire: Starkey, Boyle, and the Fate of Helmontian Chymistry

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226577111
eISBN:
9780226577050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226577050.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Starkey's working laboratory methodology proved to be coherent and sophisticated in several ways. Starkey also developed the quantitative techniques of Helmontian chymistry into labor-saving and ... More


Science in Ancient Civilizations?

Geoffrey Lloyd

in Ancient Worlds, Modern Reflections: Philosophical Perspectives on Greek and Chinese Science and Culture

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199270163
eISBN:
9780191602276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270163.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Even though there was no equivalent to modern laboratory-based science in ancient societies, ancient investigators had analogous ambitions to those of today's scientists, so there is no need, on this ... More


Science Outside the Laboratory: Measurement in Field Science and Economics

Marcel Boumans

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199388288
eISBN:
9780199388318
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199388288.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events according to a rule. The rule should be such that the numbers provide reliable information about the objects or events. But the rules ... More


Science, φ-Science, and the Dual Character of Chemistry

Rein Vihalemm

in Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190494599
eISBN:
9780197559666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190494599.003.0024
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

A central question in philosophy of chemistry is the status of chemistry as a science: Is chemistry simply a physical science, a science of its own type, or something else? In traditional ... More


History of Universities: Volume XXXIV/1: A Global History of Research Education: Disciplines, Institutions, and Nations, 1840-1950

Ku-ming (Kevin) Chang and Alan Rocke (eds)

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780192844774
eISBN:
9780191933349
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192844774.001.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This book’s chapters contain a mix of analysis and discussion looking in depth at the history of higher education. This text presents a global history of research education in the nineteenth and ... More


Border Practices

in Landscapes and Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226450094
eISBN:
9780226450117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450117.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Biologists in the lab–field border zone could import practices of counting and measuring, or they could read nature's work as experiment. In either case, biologists remained dependent on the material ... More


Conclusions

Marcel Boumans

in Science Outside the Laboratory: Measurement in Field Science and Economics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199388288
eISBN:
9780199388318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199388288.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter provides a summary of the previous chapters’ conclusions, a survey of the whole book. Measurement is the assignment of numbers to objects or events according to a rule. The rule should be ... More


Concepts, Facts, and Sedimentation in Experimental Science

Friedrich Steinle

in Science and the Life-World: Essays on Husserl's Crisis of European Sciences

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804756044
eISBN:
9780804772945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804756044.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter shows how Husserl's ideas may be fruitfully extended and applied in historical research in the experimental sciences, in this case, chemistry. It considers some notions that appear to be ... More


Men and Machines

Claude A. Piantadosi

in Mankind Beyond Earth: The History, Science, and Future of Human Space Exploration

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231162432
eISBN:
9780231531030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231162432.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter begins by considering the myriad of the problems faced by NASA. These include the difficulty of trying to maintain in-house expertise in all areas of space research; the financial ... More


The Age of Stress: Science and the Search for Stability

Mark Jackson

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199588626
eISBN:
9780191750779
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588626.001.0001
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

We are living in a stressful world. Approximately half of all British employees suffer from workplace stress and over 13 million working days are lost through stress each year, costing the economy ... More


Philosophical Issues in (Sub)Disciplinary Contexts: The Case of Quantum Chemistry

Kostas Gavroglu and Ana Simões

in Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190494599
eISBN:
9780197559666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190494599.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

IN A WAY, QUANTUM chemistry was “born” as a philosophical problem: It was, of course, chemistry, but owed its scientific status to physics; it was physics with the promise of explaining all of ... More


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