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Mortality, Fertility and Gender Bias in India: A District-level Analysis

Mamta Murthi, Anne-Catherine Guio, and Jean Drèze

in Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780198292043
eISBN:
9780191684852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292043.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter evaluates inter-district patterns of fertility, child mortality, and gender bias in India using data from the 1981 census. The findings highlight the powerful effects of variables ... More


Nimble Fingers No Longer! Women's Employment in Iran

Roksana Bahramitash and Hadi Salehi Esfahani

in Contemporary Iran: Economy, Society, Politics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195378481
eISBN:
9780199852345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378481.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter reexamines the evolution of women's labor force participation (LFP) and employment in Iran in light of census data from the latter half of the 20th century, roughly 1956 to 2006. It ... More


Gender Role Attitudes since 1972: Are Southerners Distinctive?

Karen E. Campbell and Peter V. Marsden

in Social Trends in American Life: Findings from the General Social Survey since 1972

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691133317
eISBN:
9781400845569
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691133317.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

Several previous General Social Survey-based studies have revealed increasing acceptance of nontraditional gender roles. This chapter builds upon and extends these findings. It shows that adults ... More


Economic Well-being

Richard Alba and Nancy Foner

in Strangers No More: Immigration and the Challenges of Integration in North America and Western Europe

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161075
eISBN:
9781400865901
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161075.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

This chapter looks at the economic situations of the immigrants. They have uprooted themselves in the search for better economic prospects, but profound changes in the economic structures of the rich ... More


Women Working Longer: Facts and Some Explanations

Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz

in Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226532509
eISBN:
9780226532646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226532646.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

American women are working more, through their sixties and even into their seventies. Their increased participation at older ages started in the late 1980s before the turnaround in older men’s labor ... More


The Labor Force Participation of Older Men in Canada

Kevin Milligan and Tammy Schirle

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226619293
eISBN:
9780226619323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226619323.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

With few exceptions, the labor force participation rates of older men in OECD countries have followed a common trend—after declining steadily for decades, the labor force participation rates of older ... More


Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Historical Trends in Mortality and Health, Employment, and Disability Insurance Participation and Reforms

David A. Wise (ed.)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226903095
eISBN:
9780226921952
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226921952.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

In nearly every industrialized country, large aging populations and increased life expectancy have placed enormous pressure on social security programs—and, until recently, the pressure has been ... More


The Origin and Persistence of Black-White Differences in Women’s Labor Force Participation

Leah Platt Boustan, Carola Frydman, and Robert A. Margo

in Human Capital in History: The American Record

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226163895
eISBN:
9780226163925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226163925.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Black women were more likely than white women to participate in the labor force from 1870 until at least 1980 and to hold jobs in agriculture or manufacturing. Differences in observables cannot ... More


Introduction

Courtney C. Coile, Kevin Milligan, and David A. Wise

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226619293
eISBN:
9780226619323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226619323.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This is the eighth phase of a project on social security and retirement that compares the experiences of a dozen developed countries. The project was launched in the mid-1990s following decades of ... More


The Evolution of Labor Supply and Unemployment in the Egyptian Economy: 1988–2012

Ragui Assaad and Caroline Krafft

in The Egyptian Labor Market in an Era of Revolution

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198737254
eISBN:
9780191800733
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198737254.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter analyzes the evolution of labor supply and unemployment in Egypt in the period from 1988 to 2012, focusing on the impact of the demographic phenomenon known as the youth bulge and the ... More


Labor Force Participation of Older Males in Korea: 1955 to 2005

Chulhee Lee

in The Economic Consequences of Demographic Change in East Asia

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226386850
eISBN:
9780226386881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226386881.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter investigates labor force participation (LFP) of older males (sixty and above) in Korea over the last fifty years, taking advantage of the availability of a long span of data through the ... More


The Recent Rise of Labor Force Participation of Older Workers in Sweden

Lisa Laun and Mårten Palme

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226619293
eISBN:
9780226619323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226619323.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This paper studies the background to the increase in labor force participation of older workers in Sweden since 2000. In the first part, we study how the characteristics of the elderly have changed ... More


Working Longer in the United States: Trends and Explanations

Courtney C. Coile

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226619293
eISBN:
9780226619323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226619323.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Over the past two decades, labor force participation rates for older men have been rising, reversing a century-long trend towards earlier retirement. Participation rates for older women are rising as ... More


Old-Age Labor Force Participation in Germany: What Explains the Trend Reversal among Older Men and the Steady Increase among Women?

Axel Börsch-Supan and Irene Ferrari

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226619293
eISBN:
9780226619323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226619323.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The aim of this paper is to illustrate for Germany the factors that may explain the U-shaped pattern of older men’s labor force participation—from a long declining trend that began in the early 1970s ... More


Gender Inequality in Work, Health, and Income

MAYRA BUVINIC, ANTONIO GIUFFRIDA, and AMANDA GLASSMAN

in Global Inequalities at Work: Work's Impact on the Health of Individuals, Families, and Societies

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150865
eISBN:
9780199865222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150865.003.008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In Latin America and the Caribbean, more women than men have entered the labor force since the 1980s; what are the implications for women's health status? This chapter reviews the empirical evidence ... More


Overlapping Identities: Caste and Gender

Ashwani Deshpande

in The Grammar of Caste: Economic Discrimination in Contemporary India

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198072034
eISBN:
9780199081028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198072034.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The previous chapters suggest that identity matters in the real world, even in strongly market-oriented situations. What happens when there are overlapping identities? There are several contexts ... More


Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Workers in Spain

Pilar García-Gómez, Sergi Jiménez-Martín, and Judit Vall Castelló

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Working Longer

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226619293
eISBN:
9780226619323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226619323.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Similar to other OECD countries, labor force participation rates of Spanish older workers were falling until the mid-1990s when there was a reversal in the trend. Labor force participation rates of ... More


The Development of Women's Labor Market Experiences

in Gendered Trajectories: Women, Work, and Social Change in Japan and Taiwan

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804760096
eISBN:
9780804771047
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804760096.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter discusses how women's employment trajectories have differed between Japan and Taiwan, as well as the consequences of these differences. Using survey data containing individuals' detailed ... More


Incentives to Retire, the Employment of the Old, and the Employment of the Young in Sweden

Mårten Palme and Ingemar Svensson

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Fiscal Implications of Reform

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226310176
eISBN:
9780226310008
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226310008.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter empirically examines the hypothesis that the increasing generosity of the social security system has decreased labor force participation among the elderly. It then investigates whether ... More


The Wealth Escalator and the Debt Anchor

Mariko Lin Chang

in Shortchanged: Why Women Have Less Wealth and What Can Be Done About It

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195367690
eISBN:
9780199944101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367690.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

This chapter discusses the concept of the wealth escalator as the mechanism for understanding why men have an advantage when it comes to translating income into wealth. It also discusses the debt ... More


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