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Postprocessing

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter explains how to write a postprocessing code, and more specifically how to study the nonlinear simulations using computer graphics and analysis. It first considers how to compute and ... More


Outflows and Jets

Charles D. Bailyn

in What Does a Black Hole Look Like?

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148823
eISBN:
9781400850563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148823.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter looks at the presence of outflows or jets, a somewhat unexpected feature of accretion flows. There is strong observational evidence that some fraction of the infalling material reverses ... More


Perrin’s Brownian Motion Experiments

George E. Smith and Raghav Seth

in Brownian Motion and Molecular Reality

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780190098025
eISBN:
9780190098056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098025.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Between 1908 and 1911 Perrin published values for Avogadro’s number—the number of molecules per mole of any substance—on the basis of theory-mediated measurements of the mean kinetic energies of ... More


t w o The True Estimation of Living Forces Kant's Theory of Dynamics

Martin Schöneld

in The Philosophy of the Young Kant: The Precritical Project

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195132182
eISBN:
9780199786336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195132181.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explores the text and contentions of Kant’s first book, Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces (1747). Section 1 describes how Kant’s debut turned into a debacle. Section 2 ... More


The Historical Background: Brownian Motion as of 1905

George E. Smith and Raghav Seth

in Brownian Motion and Molecular Reality

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780190098025
eISBN:
9780190098056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098025.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The mystery of Brownian motion had been announced with its discovery by Robert Brown in 1828: the persistence of the motion of solid particles in liquids for indefinite periods of time instead of ... More


Rotational Dynamics

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The successful description of the motion of a rigid body is one of the triumphs of Newtonian mechanics. Having learned in the previous chapter how to specify the position and orientation of a rigid ... More


From Atomic Orbitals to Molecular Orbitals and Chemical Bonds

Jochen Autschbach

in Quantum Theory for Chemical Applications: From Basic Concepts to Advanced Topics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190920807
eISBN:
9780197508350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190920807.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Quantum and Theoretical Chemistry

It is shown how an aufbau principle for atoms arises from the Hartree-Fock (HF) treatment with increasing numbers of electrons. The Slater screening rules are introduced. The HF equations for general ... More


Energy: science (and some history)

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Energy lies at the core of the first law of thermodynamics as a concept to quantify change. Events happen but total energy remains the same. It’s the change in energy that matters. The realization ... More


Impossible Things, Difficult Things

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Difficult questions addressed are: why are there two main forms of energy, potential and kinetic, and is one of them more fundamental? Kinetic energy – where does it go when we change reference ... More


Fundamental Aspects of Incompressible and Compressible Turbulent Flows

John L. Lumley and Gal Berkooz

in Simulation and Modeling of Turbulent Flows

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195106435
eISBN:
9780197561003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195106435.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Turbulence generally can be characterized by a number of length scales: at least one for the energy containing range, and one from the dissipative range; there may be others, but they can be ... More


Reaction Dynamics in Femtosecond and Microsecond Time Windows: Ammonia Clusters as a Paradigm

S. Wei and A. W. , Jr Castleman

in Chemical Reactions in Clusters

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195090048
eISBN:
9780197560594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195090048.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The last decade has seen tremendous growth in the study of gas phase clusters. Some areas of cluster research which have received considerable attention in this regard include solvation (Lee et al. ... More


Wind Energy: A Renewable Energy Type

Paul F. Meier

in The Changing Energy Mix: A Systematic Comparison of Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190098391
eISBN:
9780190098421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190098391.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Sustainability

A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines, sufficiently spaced to avoid wind interference between turbines. Onshore and offshore are the two basic types of wind farms. The cost of building an ... More


Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Internal Energy Transfer Calculations Using Neural Network (NN) Methods

Lionel Raff, Ranga Komanduri, Martin Hagan, and Satish Bukkapatnam

in Neural Networks in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199765652
eISBN:
9780197563113
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199765652.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Genetic algorithms (GA), like NNs, can be used to fit highly nonlinear functional forms, such as empirical interatomic potentials from a large ensemble of data. Briefly, a genetic algorithm uses a ... More


Balance of energy and entropy imbalance

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law represents a balance between the rate of change of the internal energy plus the rate of change of kinetic energy of ... More


What is Energy? Some Preliminary Physics

E. C. Pielou

in The Energy of Nature

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226668062
eISBN:
9780226668055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226668055.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

This chapter addresses the question: What is energy? It discusses the concept of work, energy conversions, potential energy (PE), and kinetic energy. Energy results from two kinds of forces. One ... More


Constructive Molecular Dynamics Lattice Gases: Three-Dimensional Molecular Self-Assembly

Martin Nilsson and Steen Rasmussen

in New Constructions in Cellular Automata

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195137170
eISBN:
9780197561652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/9780195137170.003.0011
Subject:
Computer Science, Systems Analysis and Design

Realistic molecular dynamics and self-assembly is represented in a lattice simulation where water, water-hydrocarbons, and water-amphiphilic systems are investigated. The details of the phase ... More


The Electron Density and the Lattice Energy of Crystals

Philip Coppens

in X-Ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195098235
eISBN:
9780197560877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195098235.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The total energy of a quantum-mechanical system can be written as the sum of its kinetic energy T, Coulombic energy ECoui and exchange and electron correlation contributions Ex and Ecorr, ... More


Theory of Radiative Transfer

R. M. Goody and Y. L. Yung

in Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195051346
eISBN:
9780197560976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195051346.003.0004
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

In common with astrophysical usage the word intensity will denote specific intensity of radiation, i.e., the flux of energy in a given direction per second per unit frequency (or wavelength) range ... More


A Proposed Transparency Measure as a Step Toward Space Arms Control

Gilles Doucet

in War and Peace in Outer Space: Law, Policy, and Ethics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780197548684
eISBN:
9780197548714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197548684.003.0011
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter describes a multilateral transparency measure requiring “notification of transfer of kinetic energy to an object in Earth orbit.” This proposed transparency and confidence-building ... More


Fundamentals Of Atomistic Simulations

Vasily Bulatov and Wei Cai

in Computer Simulations of Dislocations

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198526148
eISBN:
9780191916618
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198526148.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Software Engineering

Fundamentally, materials derive their properties from the interaction between their constituent atoms. These basic interactions make the atoms assemble in a particular crystalline structure. The ... More


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