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How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Penelope Mackie

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

What are the essential properties of ordinary individuals such as people, cats, trees, and tables? The question is notoriously difficult, yet must be answered to obtain a satisfying account of the ... More


Doing without Concepts

Edouard Machery

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306880
eISBN:
9780199867950
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306880.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Over recent years, the psychology of concepts has been rejuvenated by new work on prototypes, inventive ideas on causal cognition, the development of neo-empiricist theories of concepts, and the ... More


The Income Concept

Fred Campano and Dominick Salvatore

in Income Distribution: Includes CD

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195300918
eISBN:
9780199783441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195300912.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The definition of income in developed and developing countries is introduced. The use of household sample surveys to gather information on income distribution is discussed as well as the derived ... More


In Defense of Kinds

Kathrin Koslicki

in The Structure of Objects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539895
eISBN:
9780191716300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539895.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter defends a commitment to an ontology of kinds for the special case of natural kinds; such a commitment plays an important role in motivating and underwriting the structure-based and ... More


Radical Interpretation and Indeterminacy

Timothy McCarthy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145069
eISBN:
9780199833436
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145062.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Attempts to offer a response to Quine's arguments for the indeterminacy of reference and translation by developing an original theory of radical interpretation, i.e. the project of characterising ... More


Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Scott Soames

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

In Naming and Necessity Saul Kripke undermined descriptive analyses of names by showing that names are rigid designators; thereby telling us what their meanings are not, but not what they are. In ... More


Categorial Ontology and Scientific Essentialism

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199254392
eISBN:
9780191603600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199254397.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The sense in which laws are necessary is reviewed. The relationship between natural laws and natural kinds is emphasized. The relationship between natural laws and causal powers is further explored, ... More


Knowledge and its Place in Nature

Hilary Kornblith

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246311
eISBN:
9780191597862
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246319.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Argues that conceptual analysis should be rejected in favour of a more naturalistic approach to epistemology. There is a robust natural phenomenon of knowledge; knowledge is a natural kind. An ... More


Essentialism, Semantic Theory, and Natural Kinds

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Following Nathan Salmon and D. H. Mellor, this chapter argues that natural kind essentialism of the type advocated by Kripke and Putnam is not an inevitable consequence of the adoption of an ... More


Manifest Realism II: Why Gold is Necessarily a Yellow Metal

Robert Hanna

in Kant, Science, and Human Nature

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199285549
eISBN:
9780191713965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285549.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter aims to work out the positive theory behind Kant's surprising claim that gold is necessarily a yellow metal, using scientific essentialism only as a critical foil. It discusses Kant's ... More


Preliminaries

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter characterizes essentialism, and distinguishes essentialism about individuals from essentialism about natural kinds, arguing that the first does, but the second need not, involve de re ... More


Essential Properties and Remote Contingencies

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Having rejected the standard views about the essential properties of ordinary individuals, this chapter confronts the question whether such individuals have any interesting essential properties at ... More


LINGUISTIC WAYFARING

Mark Wilson

in Wandering Significance: An Essay on Conceptual Behaviour

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199269259
eISBN:
9780191710155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269259.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

After summarizing the key ingredients within a facade, this chapter reexamines the standard cases of philosophical puzzlement that were introduced in earlier chapters employing these structural ... More


Toward a Resolution

Albert Casullo

in A Priori Justification

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195115055
eISBN:
9780199786190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195115058.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter contends that proponents of the a priori face two major challenges: articulating the experiential/nonexperiential distinction, and providing supporting evidence for the claim that there ... More


A Theory of Criminal Law Theories

Michael Moore

in Placing Blame: A Theory of the Criminal Law

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199599493
eISBN:
9780191594649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199599493.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter develops a theory of what a theory of and area of law, criminal law included, should look like. It describes what kind of thing an area of law might be, and previews the book's ... More


Notes towards a Study of Substance and Essence in Aristotle's Parts of Animals II–IV

Allan Gotthelf

in Teleology, First Principles, and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199287956
eISBN:
9780191738296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287956.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter takes a close look at nine passages in PA (and IA) where Aristotle speaks of a part as present, or as having the character it does, in an organism because it is part of or required by ... More


History of Animals I.6 490b7‐491a6 : Aristotle's megista genē

Allan Gotthelf

in Teleology, First Principles, and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199287956
eISBN:
9780191738296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287956.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter offers a close reading of what is perhaps the most difficult passage in all of HA. The passage introduces seven megista genê (‘very large kinds’) of animals that Aristotle apparently ... More


After the Naming Explosion: Joachim Wach’s Unfinished Project

Gregory D. Alles

in Hermeneutics, Politics, and the History of Religions: The Contested Legacies of Joachim Wach and Mircea Eliade

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394337
eISBN:
9780199777358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394337.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter discusses Joachim Wach’s efforts in formulating typologies within the study of religions. It argues that these efforts fail not because of their ethnocentric character—although they are ... More


Can Any Sciences be Special? Comments on Papineau

Michael Esfeld

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter seeks to develop Papineau's argument further in the direction of a reductive but conservative physicalism that sets out to vindicate the scientific quality of the special sciences by ... More


Causation in a Structural World

James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, and John Collier

in Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199276196
eISBN:
9780191706127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199276196.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that the idea of causation has similar status to ideas of cohesion, forces, and things. Appreciating the role of causation in a notional world is crucial to understanding the ... More


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