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Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments

C. Stephen Evans

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199217168
eISBN:
9780191712401
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217168.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This book introduces the concept of theistic natural signs. It argues that these signs, the concept of which comes from a modified and expanded account of Reidian natural signs, provide sufficient ... More


Are Any Moral Beliefs Justified?

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

in Moral Skepticisms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195187724
eISBN:
9780199786121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195187725.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter distinguishes different ways for moral beliefs and believers to be justified: instrumentally or epistemically, permissively or positively, slightly or adequately, and personally or ... More


In Contrast with What?

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

in Moral Skepticisms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195187724
eISBN:
9780199786121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195187725.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter develops a contrastivist account of justified belief in general, not only within morality. It argues that contrary to contextualism, no contrast class is ever really the relevant one, ... More


Immediate Justification and Process Reliabilism

Alvin I. Goldman

in Reliabilism and Contemporary Epistemology: Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199812875
eISBN:
9780199933150
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812875.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

This chapter examines the ability to solve long-standing epistemological problems. It introduces the concept of foundationalism, which is a classical approach to the structure of justification. It ... More


Theories of Justification

Richard Fumerton

in The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195130058
eISBN:
9780199833481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195130057.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In “Theories of Justification,” Richard Fumerton begins an overview of several prominent positions on the nature of justification by isolating epistemic justification from nonepistemic justification. ... More


Normative Commitments and the Very Idea of Normativity

Alan Millar

in Understanding People: Normativity and Rationalizing Explanation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199254408
eISBN:
9780191719721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199254408.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter outlines a conception of the normative commitments incurred by beliefs and intentions. Close attention is paid to the idea that believing something commits you to believing what is ... More


The Status of Normative Intuitions

Ralph Wedgwood

in The Nature of Normativity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199251315
eISBN:
9780191719127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199251315.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Part III of the book is devoted to epistemological issues. If there are objective normative truths, then how could we ever know them? How could we even have any rational or justified beliefs in ... More


Pyrrhonism and Constrained Belief

Alan Bailey

in Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198238522
eISBN:
9780191679667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198238522.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that global scepticism about the availability of rationally justified beliefs can be refuted only by showing that the sceptic's negative epistemological arguments can be rejected ... More


Moral Skepticisms

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195187724
eISBN:
9780199786121
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195187725.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Moral Skepticisms provides a detailed overview of moral epistemology, addressing such profound questions as: Are any moral beliefs true? Are any justified? Is moral knowledge possible? ... More


The Assurance View of Testimony

Frederick F. Schmitt

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

According to the assurance view of testimony, we are often testimonially justified in believing a proposition p in virtue of the testifier's assurance that p or the recipient's acceptance of that ... More


The Epistemology of Silence

Sanford C. Goldberg

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

Epistemic disagreement is disagreement over epistemic principles, or principles concerning the reliability and extent of our epistemic methods. This chapter argues that disagreement over this sort ... More


Cognitive Capacities and Justification

Alan Millar

in Reasons and Experience

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242703
eISBN:
9780191680540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242703.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter contrasts the conceptualist approach to epistemology with a so-called nativism. Nativists seek an understanding of the constraints on justified belief through the scientific examination ... More


Knowledge and involvement. What makes truth valuable?

Edward Craig

in Knowledge and the State of Nature: An Essay in Conceptual Synthesis

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238799
eISBN:
9780191597237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238797.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The concept of knowledge is a concept formed and operated by active beings who need to direct their activity. This, according to Craig, explains two features associated with the concept of knowledge: ... More


The Swamping Problem Redux: Pith and Gist

Jonathan Kvanvig

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

The Swamping Problem is one of the central problems in the new value-driven approach to epistemology that has arisen recently. It arises from the fact that value isn't always additive, so if you ... More


The Theory of Knowledge and Theory of Justified Belief

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter returns to Gettier's article, “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” and considers its impact on the theory of knowledge and the theory of justified belief. It first discusses the ... More


Epistemology within a General Theory of Rationality

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter sketches a reorientation of epistemology. It first briefly reviews some relevant history in modern epistemology. The chapter then discusses the benefits of a separation of justified ... More


Everyday Knowledge: When Does S Know That P?

Jay F. Rosenberg

in Thinking about Knowing

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199251339
eISBN:
9780191598326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251339.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Addresses the classical ‘justified true belief’ account of knowledge. Examines Robert Fogelin's reinterpretation of the traditional analysis as conjoining assessments of epistemic propriety and ... More


The Core Concepts of Epistemology

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0027
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter details the core concepts of this reoriented epistemology. These are true belief and epistemically rational belief. Knowledge and justified belief are derivative concepts explicated in ... More


The Epistemological Framework

Frederick F. Schmitt

in Hume’s Epistemology in the Treatise: A Veritistic Interpretation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199683116
eISBN:
9780191771378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683116.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

In Book 1 of the Treatise Hume proposes an associative psychology of causal inference that reassigns that operation from its traditional place in the domain of knowledge to a new position in the ... More


Scepticism

Peter Poellner

in Nietzsche and Metaphysics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250630
eISBN:
9780191598258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250630.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Presents Nietzsche's critical reflections directed at traditional metaphysical categories such as the external world, substance, causation, and self. Targeted theories include the doctrine of ... More


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