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Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments

C. Stephen Evans

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199217168
eISBN:
9780191712401
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217168.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This book introduces the concept of theistic natural signs. It argues that these signs, the concept of which comes from a modified and expanded account of Reidian natural signs, provide sufficient ... More


Non‐combatant Immunity and the Definition of Non‐innocence and Innocence

Uwe Steinhoff

in On the Ethics of War and Terrorism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199217373
eISBN:
9780191712470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217373.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter tackles the question of why soldiers, allegedly, are legitimate targets and civilians not. Four approaches to the explanation of the difference are discussed: the moral guilt theory, the ... More


Knowledge and involvement. What makes truth valuable?

Edward Craig

in Knowledge and the State of Nature: An Essay in Conceptual Synthesis

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238799
eISBN:
9780191597237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238797.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The concept of knowledge is a concept formed and operated by active beings who need to direct their activity. This, according to Craig, explains two features associated with the concept of knowledge: ... More


Two Conceptions of A Priori Justification

Albert Casullo

in A Priori Justification

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195115055
eISBN:
9780199786190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195115058.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines two conceptions of a priori justification: (AP1) S’s belief that p is justified a priori if and only if S’s belief that p is nonexperientially justified; and (AP2) S’s belief ... More


Normative Commitments and the Very Idea of Normativity

Alan Millar

in Understanding People: Normativity and Rationalizing Explanation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199254408
eISBN:
9780191719721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199254408.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter outlines a conception of the normative commitments incurred by beliefs and intentions. Close attention is paid to the idea that believing something commits you to believing what is ... More


Meaning Constitution and Epistemic Rationality

Paul Horwich

in Reflections on Meaning

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199251247
eISBN:
9780191603983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925124X.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Our beliefs and inferential transitions are subject to evaluation as rational or irrational by reference to general epistemic norms. But what could determine certain norms as the correct ones? This ... More


Lying and Deception about Questions of War and Peace: Case Studies

Thomas L. Carson

in Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199577415
eISBN:
9780191722813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577415.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This chapter examines cases in which political leaders and public figures told lies or engaged in deception as a pretext for fighting wars. The examples given here include William Randolph Hearst, ... More


Privacy and the Press

Joshua Rozenberg

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199288472
eISBN:
9780191700507
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288472.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Do we need a law of privacy? Drawing a line between justified and unjustified intrusion places great stresses on our legal traditions with some judges favouring an approach which stretches existing ... More


The Pharisee and the Tax Collector

Anna Wierzbicka

in What Did Jesus Mean?: Explaining the Sermon on the Mount and the Parables in Simple and Universal Human Concepts

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195137330
eISBN:
9780199867905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195137337.003.0023
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies

This chapter seeks to clarify the meaning of the parable about the Pharisee and the tax collector, by bypassing complex and problematic terms such as “justification,” “righteousness” or “humility” ... More


Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory

Neil MacCormick

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198763840
eISBN:
9780191695230
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198763840.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

What makes an argument in a law case good or bad? Can legal decisions be justified by purely rational argument or are they ultimately determined by more subjective influences? These questions are ... More


Patents and Public Health: Principle, Politics and Paradox: British Academy Law Lecture

Edwin Cameron and Jonathan Berger

in Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 131, 2004 Lectures

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263518
eISBN:
9780191734021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263518.003.0012
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This lecture discusses how patent protection has been used in order to limit access to essential medicines. It considers how patents can be justified and shows how and why the ‘principle of balance’ ... More


The National Cause

Catriona Pennell

in A Kingdom United: Popular Responses to the Outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199590582
eISBN:
9780191738777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590582.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

Chapter Two is the first in a series of three thematic chapters. It outlines how the British people came to understand the war and why Britain was fighting. Moreover, it considers how the British ... More


Closure and Skepticism

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter considers a different puzzle to the luck issue. It discusses another story and stresses that not only is knowledge not incompatible with luck, it actually requires it. It requires, in ... More


The Core Concepts of Epistemology

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0027
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter details the core concepts of this reoriented epistemology. These are true belief and epistemically rational belief. Knowledge and justified belief are derivative concepts explicated in ... More


The Status of Normative Intuitions

Ralph Wedgwood

in The Nature of Normativity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199251315
eISBN:
9780191719127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199251315.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Part III of the book is devoted to epistemological issues. If there are objective normative truths, then how could we ever know them? How could we even have any rational or justified beliefs in ... More


Immediate Justification and Process Reliabilism

Alvin I. Goldman

in Reliabilism and Contemporary Epistemology: Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199812875
eISBN:
9780199933150
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812875.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

This chapter examines the ability to solve long-standing epistemological problems. It introduces the concept of foundationalism, which is a classical approach to the structure of justification. It ... More


Definitions and Debates

Barbara Jo Fidler, Nicholas Bala, and Michael A. Saini

in Children Who Resist Postseparation Parental Contact: A Differential Approach for Legal and Mental Health Professionals

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199895496
eISBN:
9780199980086
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199895496.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter provides an overview of the historical context relating to alienation, beginning with Richard Gardner's introduction of parental alienation syndrome, followed by a discussion of Kelly ... More


The Swamping Problem Redux: Pith and Gist

Jonathan Kvanvig

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

The Swamping Problem is one of the central problems in the new value-driven approach to epistemology that has arisen recently. It arises from the fact that value isn't always additive, so if you ... More


The Assurance View of Testimony

Frederick F. Schmitt

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

According to the assurance view of testimony, we are often testimonially justified in believing a proposition p in virtue of the testifier's assurance that p or the recipient's acceptance of that ... More


The Epistemology of Silence

Sanford C. Goldberg

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

Epistemic disagreement is disagreement over epistemic principles, or principles concerning the reliability and extent of our epistemic methods. This chapter argues that disagreement over this sort ... More


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