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Supporting Standard-Setting Organizations

Michael A. Carrier

in Innovation for the 21st Century: Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Property and Antitrust Law

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195342581
eISBN:
9780199867035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342581.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

A standard is a common platform that allows products to work together. This chapter begins by describing the various types of standard-setting. It then offers a brief history of antitrust treatment ... More


Building Ontologies With Basic Formal Ontology

Robert Arp, Barry Smith, and Andrew D. Spear

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262527811
eISBN:
9780262329583
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262527811.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The potential of information-driven disciplines such as biology and clinical science can be realized only if those involved in the production and analysis of data can successfully build upon each ... More


Transforming the Infrastructure Supporting the Information Society

Robin Mansell and W. Edward Steinmueller

in Mobilizing the Information Society

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198295570
eISBN:
9780191685149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198295570.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology, Innovation

The evolution of certain associated technologies, specifically the notion of ‘convergence’, has significant impacts on the nature of and the conditions for user access to communication and ... More


Kinds of Ontologies and the Role of Taxonomies

Robert Arp, Barry Smith, and Andrew D. Spear

in Building Ontologies With Basic Formal Ontology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262527811
eISBN:
9780262329583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262527811.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Philosophical ontology (also ‘metaphysics’) explores general questions concerning the nature of being; applied ontology concerns more specific questions pertaining to entities in specific domains. ... More


Basic Formal Ontology at Work

Robert Arp, Barry Smith, and Andrew D. Spear

in Building Ontologies With Basic Formal Ontology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262527811
eISBN:
9780262329583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262527811.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

We discuss the interplay between applied ontology and the use of web resources in scientific and other domains, and provide an account of how ontologies are implemented computationally. We provide an ... More


Interoperability Politics

Laura DeNardis

in The Internet in Everything: Freedom and Security in a World with No Off Switch

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780300233070
eISBN:
9780300249330
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300233070.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter assesses how technical standardization faces unique challenges. Embedded objects require high security but are also constrained architectures that demand lower energy consumption and ... More


Modern Fortran Explained: Incorporating Fortran 2018

Michael Metcalf, John Reid, and Malcolm Cohen

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198811893
eISBN:
9780191850028
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198811893.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Fortran marches on, remaining one of the principal programming languages used in high-performance scientific, numerical, and engineering computing. A series of significant revisions to the standard ... More


The Ecosystem of Connective Media: Lock In, Fence Off, Opt Out?

José van Dijck

in The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199970773
eISBN:
9780199307425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199970773.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Culture

The last chapter reassembles the histories of individual microsystems and identifies critical questions about the changing nature of the ecosystem and online sociality. Although each of the dissected ... More


Transforming the Interstate Highways

Robert W. Poole Jr.

in Rethinking America's Highways: A 21st-Century Vision for Better Infrastructure

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226557571
eISBN:
9780226557601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226557601.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The first major implementation of highway utilities is proposed to be toll-financed reconstruction and modernization of the Interstates. Long-distance routes would be converted first, urban ones ... More


Transforming Urban Freeways

Robert W. Poole Jr.

in Rethinking America's Highways: A 21st-Century Vision for Better Infrastructure

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226557571
eISBN:
9780226557601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226557601.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Early plans envisioned a network of parkways, not the huge freeways that were built. This chapter suggests modifying existing freeways via elevated lanes, tunnels, deck and lids, to close gaps and ... More


EU-NATO Relations: Consistency as a Strategic Consideration and a Legal Requirement

Fabien Terpan

in European Security Law

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199218622
eISBN:
9780191696114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218622.003.0012
Subject:
Law, EU Law

This chapter explores the EU-NATO relations with regard to security and defence matters. In both NATO and the EU there is a legal basis for the development of a European role in security and defence. ... More


Computers in medicine and health care

Ronald M. Baecker

in Computers and Society: Modern Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198827085
eISBN:
9780191917318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827085.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction

As with the chapter on learning, we begin our discussion of health applications by examining influential early visions of the possible role of computers in ... More


Introduction

Alan W. Brown, David J. Carney, Edwin J. Morris, Dennis B. Smith, and Paul F. Zarrella

in Title Pages

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094787
eISBN:
9780197560785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094787.003.0004
Subject:
Computer Science, Software Engineering

Computers have a significant impact on almost every aspect of our lives. Computer systems are used as integral components in the design of many of the ... More


Geographic Information Systems

Daniel G. Brown and Gregory Elmes

in Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233923
eISBN:
9780191917707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233923.003.0036
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Regional Geography

The role of GIS within the discipline of geography, not to mention its role within the daily operation of a very large range of human enterprises in the ... More


Facilitating Competition in the Clouds

Ian Walden and Laíse Da Correggio Luciano

in Cloud Computing Law

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199671670
eISBN:
9780191767463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671670.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Competition law issues are emerging in relation to cloud computing, notwithstanding the relative immaturity of the sector. This chapter analyses the potential application to the cloud sector of EU ... More


Theorizing Order(s) on the Internet

Matthias C. Kettemann

in The Normative Order of the Internet: A Theory of Rule and Regulation Online

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198865995
eISBN:
9780191898907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865995.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Chapter 5 shows the potential of theoretical approaches to solving the normative crisis on the internet. In turn, key theories of order in the broader sense are presented and discussed. Though the ... More


Transitioning to the Cloud

Nayan B. Ruparelia

in Cloud Computing

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262529099
eISBN:
9780262334129
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262529099.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming Languages

Once you have decided that you want to use cloud computing, you need to assess how you will transition your current use of IT, the concommitant processes and services to the cloud. Additionally, you ... More


The Interoperability Debate

Jonathan Band and Masanobu Katoh

in Interfaces on Trial 2.0

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015004
eISBN:
9780262295543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015004.003.0001
Subject:
Information Science, Information Science

This chapter examines the interoperability debate in the European Union and the U.S. before 1995. It considers the issues concerning the unprotectability of interface specifications and the ... More


Copyright Cases in U.S. Courts

Jonathan Band and Masanobu Katoh

in Interfaces on Trial 2.0

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015004
eISBN:
9780262295543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015004.003.0002
Subject:
Information Science, Information Science

This chapter examines copyright cases in U.S. relevant to the interoperability debate. These cases include Lotus v. Borland, Bateman v. Mnemonics, and Softel v. Dragon Medical. This chapter analyzes ... More


Interoperability under the DMCA

Jonathan Band and Masanobu Katoh

in Interfaces on Trial 2.0

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015004
eISBN:
9780262295543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015004.003.0003
Subject:
Information Science, Information Science

This chapter examines the legislative history of the interoperability exception in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and the interoperability cases decided under the DMCA in the U.S. It ... More


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